Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe
EEA Report No 2/2012
Challenges and opportunities for cities together with supportive national and European policies
- EEA (European Environment Agency)
- Published: 14 May 2012
- Defining the city area
- Coastal flooding
- River flooding
- Share of green and blue urban areas in cities as an indicator for heat waves
- City data sensitivity
- City data adaptive capacity
Social capital — trust in other people (synthetic index 0–100), 2009 The map shows the perception of the cities’ population on their trust in other people living in the city; it is therefore a proxy for social capital.
Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with ozone concentrations over the long-term objective for protection of human health, 1997-2009 (EU-27) The target value is 120 µg O3/m3 as daily maximum of 8 hour mean, not to be exceeded more than 25 days per calendar year, averaged over three years and to be achieved where possible by 2010. Over the years 1997-2009 the total population for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 47 to 114 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
World Bank Government effectiveness index, 2010 The map shows the population’s perception of the quality of public and civil services and their degree of independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government’s commitment to such policies.
Human resources — age dependency index, 2004 The map shows an index on demographic dependency for European cites
Economic determinant — GDP per capita figures for European cities, 2004 (EUR) The map shows the GDP per capita for European cites
Infrastructure as one determinant of adaptive capacity The infrastructure determinant as a part of adaptive capacity is described through 3 indicators: density of roads networks, number of hospitals beds and sustainable water use index values resulting in 5 classes and presented per NUTS 3 unit
Technology as one determinant of adaptive capacity, based on the NUTS 3 level The technology determinant as a part of adaptive capacity is described through 3 indicators: R&D expenditure as % of GDP, number of R&D personnel, number of patent application per resulting in 5 classes and presented per NUTS 3 unit.
Equity — percentage of women among elected city representatives, 2004 The map shows the proportion of women who are elected as city representatives
Perceptions on 'city committed to fight against climate change' (synthetic index 0–100), 2009 The map shows the perception of the cities’ population how committed the city’s administration is in its fight against climate change
Education — percentage of population aged 15–64 having a level of education following secondary schooling (qualified at tertiary level), 2004 The map shows the proportion of the city population between 15 and 64 years with a higher education (ISCED level 5 and 6).
Change in population between 2005 and 2050 under a status quo scenario The relative changes in population numbers are presented in 9 classes per NUTS 3 unit
Water stress indicator WEI for annual average on river basin level for the a) baseline, b) 2050 under the 'economy comes first' scenario, and c) compared with urban population numbers Annual average water stress indicator WEI on river basin level for baseline and 2050 period with SCENES scenario Economy First (EcF)
Precipitation deficit in summer (JJA) and winter (DJF) for the periods 2021–2040, 2041–2060 and 2061–2080 Precipitation deficit in summer (JJA) and winter (DJF) for the periods in the future 2021-2040, 2041-2060 and 2061-2080.
Relative change of mean annual storm loss potential on nine GCM (upper row) and eight RCM (bottom row) simulations for 2071–2100 compared to 1961–2000 (SRES A1B scenario) -
Potential inundation exposure for coastal cities due to projected sea level rise and storm surge events The map shows the proportion of the city area (UMZ inside the core city) that would be affected by potential inundation caused by a sea level rise of 1m.
Degree of mean soil sealing per city — share of cities per class per country The diagram shows the proportion of cities per country that falls in a particular class regarding the degree of average soil sealing.
Urban flooding — impervious surfaces reduce the drainage of rain water and increase the risk for urban flooding The map shows the average soil sealing degree inside the UMZ of European core cities (core city defined in Urban Atlas / Urban Audit). Soil sealing degrees are represented in coloured dots. The city dots are overlaid onto a modelled map displaying the change in annual number of days with heavy rainfall between the reference periods 1961-1990 and 2071-2100.
Percentage of the urban area that would be flooded — share of cities per class per country The diagram shows the proportion of cities per country that fall in a particular class regarding the percentage of potentially flooded area.
Percentage of the city that would be flooded in case rivers rise one metre Percentage of the city that would be flooded in case water in rivers rises 1 m (only cities > 100 000 hab). The city is defined by its biophysical delineation (Urban Morphological Zone) inside the core city boundaries (Urban Audit). The background shows the relative change in 100-year return level of river discharge. Neither coastal floods nor flood protection measures are considered in the calculations.
Percentage of population aged ≥ 65 — share of cities per class per country The diagram shows the proportion of cities per country that fall in a particular class regarding the share of citizens which are older than 64 years.
Vulnerable people — the elderly are considered to be a group more sensitive to various climatic stress factors than people of a working age The map shows the share of elderly people (>= 65 years) within a city (represented by the dot colours) to the total population (represented by dot size).
Urban climate analysis map for the city of Arnhem, the Netherlands The map shows different climate classifications of the areas in the city of Arnheim
Percentage of green and blue urban areas — share of cities per class per country The diagram shows the proportion of cities per country that falls in a particular class regarding the share of green and blue urban areas.
Heat waves — both a low share of green and blue urban areas and high population densities can contribute to the urban heat island effect in cities The cities are displayed as dots of different colours and sizes. The colours represent the share of green and blue urban areas inside the Urban Morphological Zone of the city, the size of the dots reflects the population density within the core cities’ UMZ. The background map is the result of climatic modelling and represents the number of combined tropical nights (T>20°C) and hot days (T>35°C) for the period 2071 to 2100.
Increase in the number of combined tropical nights (minimum temperature exceeding 20 °C) and hot days (maximum temperature exceeding 35 °C) under present and future climate conditions The map is the result of climatic modelling and represents the number of combined tropical nights (T>20°C) and hot days (T>35°C) for the period 2071 to 2100
Climate analysis map for the Stuttgart region, also showing so-called ventilation paths along with other climate related features -
European regions clustered according to projected climate changes The map presents 5 European regions clustered according to projected climate changes
Flood plains of the river Elbe in the municipality of Dresden, Germany, during different flooding events The figure shows the flooded area in Dresden during different flood events
Comparing the degree of soil sealing and the surface temperatures in Budapest, Hungary Comparing the degree of soil sealing and the surface temperatures in Budapest, Hungary
News about this publication
Preparing Europe’s cities for climate change impacts Climate change is impacting and will continue to impact Europe. Are cities ready to face rising sea levels and temperatures and more extreme events like floods, droughts or heat waves? We asked this question to Birgit Georgi, working on regional vulnerability and climate change adaptation at the European Environment Agency.
Climate change and flood risk in European cities Increased flooding is likely to be one of the most serious effects from climate change in Europe over coming decades. Some of the conditions which may contribute to urban flooding are highlighted in an Eye on Earth map from the European Environment Agency (EEA).
How vulnerable could your city be to climate impacts? Climate change will affect Europe's cities in different ways. To give an overall impression of the challenge for European cities to adapt to climate change, the European Environment Agency (EEA) has published a series of detailed interactive maps, allowing users to explore data from more than 500 cities across Europe.
Water in the city With population growth, urbanisation and economic development, the demand for freshwater in urban areas are increasing throughout Europe. At the same time, climate change and pollution are also affecting the availability of water for city residents. How can Europe's cities continue providing clean freshwater to their residents?
Europe's future depends on cities resilient to climate change Around three quarters of Europeans live in cities. Most of Europe's wealth is generated in cities, and urban areas are particularly at risk due to climate change. Europe should seize the opportunity of improving quality of life while adapting to climate change in cities, according to a report from the European Environment Agency (EEA). The report also warns that delaying adaptation will be much more costly in the long-term.
Related interactive maps
Potential flood risk for European cities from heavy rainfall events Increased flooding is likely to be one of the most serious effects from climate change in Europe over coming decades. Some of the conditions which may contribute to urban flooding are highlighted in an Eye on Earth map from the European Environment Agency (EEA).
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