Reading guide for local governments
Why should I be concerned about climate change impacts and adaptation? Is my city at risk? Why is adaptation complementary to mitigation? Must we act immediately?
In this report:
- Chapter 2, Climate and urban Europe — changes ahead, highlights how climate change is actually affecting cities in multiple ways (Section 2.2). It describes both observed and projected changes for the different climatic regions in Europe (Figure 2.2) and illustrates interaction with other global megatrends (Figure 2.1).
- Chapter 3, The road to adapt and transform cities into attractive, climate-resilient and sustainable places, describes different strategies for urban climate change adaptation (especially Table 3.1), and points to the importance of integration of climate mitigation and adaptation at city level.
The EEA map book, Urban vulnerability to climate change, provides a set of interactive maps for exploring urban vulnerabilities in relation to climate change impacts.
Chapter 2 of the first EEA report, Urban Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe (EEA Report 2/2012), describes climate challenges and response options for cities.
The EEA report, National Adaptation Policy Processes in European Countries, (EEA Report 4/2014) describes key drivers for national intervention in climate change (Chapters 1 and 2).
The Covenant of Mayors Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change describes the current situation in Europe and the necessity to adapt cities to climate change in the section on Climate Change Adaptation in Europe.
Moreover, the New Integrated Covenant of Mayors for Climate Change and Energy provides a global view of the need to adapt immediately to climate change and the benefits of investing in complementary mitigation-adaptation action. This can be found in the section, We, the Mayors, acknowledge that.
How do cities address climate change adaptation? How is adaptation supported at other levels and how does research contribute?
In this report:
- Chapter 2, Climate and urban Europe — changes ahead, describes the systemic challenge climate change represents for cities.
- Chapter 3 describes The road to adapting and transforming cities into attractive, climate-resilient and sustainable places. In particular, the last part of this chapter is dedicated to the integration of adaptation and mitigation.
- Chapter 4, Urban adaptation action to date, provides an overview of the present state of urban adaptation.
- Throughout the report, a wealth of different inspiring examples for successful local action are used. Annex 1, List of cases, provides a complete list of case studies illustrated in the report.
Chapter 4 of the EEA report, Urban Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe (EEA Report 2/2012), is dedicated to the relationship between different governance levels.
Section 2.6 of the EEA report, National Adaptation Policy Processes in European Countries (EEA Report 4/2014), provides an overview of implementation issues and good practice related to adaptation policies at the national level.
The Mayors Adapt website lists (i) European cities currently taking action in adaptation; (ii) good examples of adaptation measures by cities; and (ii) provides information and examples on the City Twinning initiative.
What is necessary to ensure effective adaptation to climate change? When should cities act?
In this report:
- Chapter 3, The road to adapt and transform cities into attractive, climate-resilient and sustainable places, highlights the need for innovative forms of action, especially related to cooperation, involvement and appropriate governance.
- Section 5.1 of chapter 5, Governance for urban adaptation, specifically addresses the national and regional support to local action and highlights the types of support different governance levels can provide.
- Chapter 3,The road to adapt and transform cities into attractive, climate-resilient and sustainable places, focusses on integrating mitigation and adaptation, and on the potential synergies between different actions and the potential of cost-effective solutions.
- Section 5.4 of chapter 5, Economics of urban adaptation, provides insights into strategies and experiences for assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation options and provides an overview on funding opportunities for cities. It illustrates the advantages of a systemic approach (Box 5.33 Copenhagen, Denmark, combines incremental and transformational adaptation in a systemic approach based on an economic assessment).
- With respect to the exchange of information and experience between cities, section 5.2 of chapter 5, Building the adaptation knowledge base and awareness, highlights the importance of knowledge exchange and networking between cities, showcasing the experience of Bratislava (Box 5.15 The benefits of peer learning and city networking for adaptation in Bratislava, Slovak Republic).
- Section 5.5 of chapter 5, Monitoring, reporting and evaluation, describes the potential of monitoring and evaluation schemes for informing ongoing policy making and provides an overview of potential funding sources (Figure 5.9 Opportunities for financing climate change adaptation in municipalities).
- All chapters of the report use a wealth of different inspiring examples of successful local action. Annex 1,List of cases, provides a complete list of case studies illustrated in the report.
Step 3 of the Urban Adaptation Support Tool (UAST) on the Climate-ADAPT platform, Identifying Adaptation options, provides links to a list of inspiring urban case studies showcased on Climate-ADAPT.
Step 4 of the UAST provides suggestions and guidance for the assessment of possible adaptation options, including tools for assessing their cost-effectiveness.
The final step of the (UAST) provides guidance for the development of evaluation and monitoring schemes and the use of indicators.
Although it focuses on the national level, the EEA report, National monitoring, reporting and evaluation of climate change adaptation in Europe (EEA Technical Report 20/2015), provides further insights on key issues related to monitoring and evaluation.
The 2012 EEA report Urban Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe and the 2014 EEA Report, National Adaptation Policy Processes in European Countries, both contain sections on monitoring and evaluation (EEA Report 2/2012, section 3.2.6; EEA Report 4/2014, Section 2.8.1).
Furthermore, the Mayors Adapt website provides insights into the characteristics of cities participating in the initiative and into financing options for cities.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
PDF generated on 23 Oct 2016, 01:33 AM