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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Annexes

Chapter 1

Annex 1.1 Comparing the main elements of the EE-AoA with the Marine AoA

Building element: Policy driven process

Marine AoA:

UNGA' s decisions in Resolution 60/30

EE-AoA:

Following the 2007 Belgrade environment ministers' conference agreed by the UNECE Committee on Environmental Policy (Oct 2010) and endorsed by the UNECE Executive Committee in Feb 2010 (see Chapter 1, Section 1.1).

Building element: Reference frameworks

Marine AoA:

Start-up phase towards a Regular Process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment

EE-AoA:

Part of the development of a sustainable Regular Assessment Process of Europe' s environment following the reform of the UNECE Environment for Europe (EfE) process and coherently with the establishment of the EU/EEA Shared Environmental Information System (SEIS) and ENPI-SEIS project.

Building element: Ownership

Marine AoA:

Expert-based process. A Group of Expert was established by the Ad Hoc Steering Group (AHSG) to undertake the actual work of the AoA with the support of UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Group of Expert included 17 scientists; their work was complemented by other contributing experts as needed.

EE-AoA:

Participatory process overseen by the UNECE Steering Group on Environmental Assessments specifically set up for the EE-AoA and co-chaired by the EEA and the Kazakh government. Within the guidelines and criteria laid down, the countries had the freedom to decide which information to be input to the process and on the critical appraisal of such information. The writing of the sub-regional modules contributing to the EE-AoA was placed with the relevant Regional Environmental Centers.

Building element: Scale

Marine AoA:

Global, with 21 AoA ' regions' (seas or oceans) outlined.

EE-AoA

Pan-European, with the following sub-regions (EEA member countries, Central Asia, Caucasus, Eastern Europe, Russian Federation, and Western Balkans).

Building element: Content

Marine AoA:

Mono-thematic (marine environment, including socio-economic aspects).

EE-AoA:

Multi-thematic (water resources and water resource management for ' water and related ecosystems' ; green economy and resource efficiency for ' green economy' ) and multiple topics within each theme.

Building element: Structure

Marine AoA:

One module

EE-AoA:

One pan-European module and four sub-regional modules (Central Asia, Caucasus, Eastern Europe, and Russian Federation) for each of the themes, for a total of ten modules, two at pan-European level (one for water and one for green economy) and eight at regional level (four for water and four for green economy).

Building element: Guidance

Marine AoA:

The mandate of the AoA was elaborated by the AHSG at its first meeting in 2006. In brief, the mandate encompasses: (i) assembling information about relevant marine assessments; (ii) undertaking a critical appraisal of such assessments; (iii) identifying a framework and options to build the Regular Process.

EE-AoA:

The process was developed along guidelines elaborated by the EEA and under the guidance of the Steering Group defining: (i) the conceptual framework of the EE-AoA, including guiding principles; (ii) the main tools for implementation (glossary, guidelines for assessments' selection and prioritisation, templates for assessments' screening, and reporting formats). Tools were adjusted and enriched during implementation.

Building element: Monitoring and coordination

Marine AoA:

The AHSG was established to oversee the implementation of the AoA. Coordination was provided by UNEP and IOC-UNESCO.

EE-AoA:

The process was guided by the UNECE Steering Group on Environmental Assessment.

Building element: IT infrastructure

Marine AoA:

The GRAMED (Global and Regional Assessments of the Marine Environment Database), an online fully searchable tool, was developed by UNEP-WCMC as a resource to support the work of the Group of Experts.

EE-AoA:

The EE-AoA knowledge base portal was established. The portal collates information from existing assessments across the pan-European region, allows online direct contribution from individual countries to the process, and provides all necessary tools for implementation, including analytical instruments.

Building element: Networking

Marine AoA:

Through the several UN agencies involved.

EE-AoA:

Through existing networks (National Focal Points from EEA member and cooperating countries and UNECE/WGEMA Contact Points from Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Russian Federation and Central Asia).

Building element: Tools for implementation

Marine AoA:

Use of terms, individual assessment template, regional summary template.

EE-AoA:

Glossary, virtual library and assessment atlas, country fiches, prioritisation criteria, review template

Chapter 2

Annex 2.1 Overview of the different organisations responsible for environmental assessments (66)

Country: Albania

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Service

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration

Country: Armenia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Nature Protection

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Service

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Nature Protection

Country: Austria

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Federal Environment Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Statistics Austria

Water reporting: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Federal Environment Agency

Country: Azerbaijan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources

Statistical yearbooks: State Committee of Statistics

Water reporting: Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources

Country: Belarus

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Committee

Water reporting: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection

Country: Belgium

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Flanders: Flemish Environment Agency (VMM); Walloon: Directorate General for Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment (DGARNE)

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Belgium, Walloon Institute for Evaluation of Foresight and Statistics (IWEPS)

Water reporting: Flemish Environment Agency, Directorate General for Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment

Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism

Statistical yearbooks: Federal Office of Statistics

Water reporting: Federal Hydrometeorological Institute

Country: Bulgaria

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Executive Environment Agency

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Institute

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment and Water

Country: Croatia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Croatian Environment Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Croatian Bureau of Statistics

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Hrvatske vode

Country: Cyprus

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Service

Water reporting: Water Development Department

Water reporting

Country: Czech Republic

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Czech Environmental Information Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Czech Statistical Office

Water reporting: Ministry of the Environment — Department of Water Protection

Country: Denmark

Organisation producing SoE assessments: National Environmental Research Institute

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Denmark

Water reporting: Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Geological survey of Denmark and Greenland

Country: Estonia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Estonian Environment Information Centre

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Estonia

Water reporting: Ministry of the Environment

Country: Finland

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Finnish Environment Institute

Statistical yearbooks: Environmental Administration

Water reporting: Environmental Administration

Country: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning

Statistical yearbooks: State Statistical Office

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning

Country: France

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transportation and Housing

Statistical yearbooks: Service of Observation and Statistics (SOeS)

Water reporting: EauFrance

Country: Georgia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistics Office

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources

Country: Germany

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Federal Environment Agency (with important input from the Federal states)

Statistical yearbooks: Federal Statistical Office (with important input from the Federal states)

Water reporting: Federal Environment Agency, Federal Environment Ministry (with important input from the Federal states)

Country: Greece

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Service of Greece

Water reporting: National Technical University of Athens

Country: Hungary

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Rural Development

Statistical yearbooks: Hungarian Central Statistical Office

Water reporting: Ministry of Rural Development, Hungarian Central Directorate for Environment and Water, VITUKI

Country: Iceland

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Iceland

Water reporting: Environment Agency

Country: Ireland

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Environmental Protection Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Central Statistics Office

Water reporting: Environmental Protection Agency

Country: Italy

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Italian National Institute of Statistics

Water reporting: Italian National Institute of Statistics

Country: Kazakhstan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environmental Protection

Statistical yearbooks: Agency for Statistics

Water reporting: Ministry of Environmental Protection

Country: Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/1999

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Environmental Protection Agency

Water reporting: Water and waste regulatory office

Country: Kyrgyzstan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: State Agency for Environmental Protection and Forestry

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Committee

Water reporting: State Committee on Water Resources and Melioration

Country: Latvia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre

Statistical yearbooks: Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia

Water reporting: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre

Country: Liechtenstein

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Liechtenstein National Administration

Statistical yearbooks: Office of Statistics

Water reporting: Environmental Protection Agency

Country: Lithuania

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Environmental Protection Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Lithuania

Water reporting: Environmental Protection Agency

Country: Luxembourg

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Environment

Statistical yearbooks: National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Water reporting: Administration of water management

Country: Malta

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Malta Environment and Planning Authority

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistics Office

Water reporting: Malta Environment and Planning Authority

Country: Moldova

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Environment

Statistical yearbooks: National Bureau of Statistics

Water reporting: Ministry for the Environment

Country: Montenegro

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Environmental Protection Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Office

Water reporting: Environmental Protection Agency

Country: Netherlands

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Netherlands

Water reporting: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency

Country: Norway

Organisation producing SoE assessments: State of the Environment Norway

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Norway

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment

Country: Poland

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection

Statistical yearbooks: Central Statistical Office

Water reporting: Ministry of the Environment, National Water Management Authority, Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection

Country: Portugal

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Portugal

Water reporting: Water Institute

Country: Romania

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Forests

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistical Institute

Water reporting: Ministry of environment/water department

Country: Russian Federation

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Federal State Statistics Service

Water reporting: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Country: Serbia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Office

Water reporting: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management

Country: Slovak Republic

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of the Environment, Slovak Environmental Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic

Water reporting: Ministry of the Environment, Water Research Institute, Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Slovak Environmental Agency, Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic

Country: Slovenia

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

Water reporting: Slovenian Environment Agency

Country: Spain

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs

Statistical yearbooks: National Statistics Institute

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs

Country: Sweden

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

Statistical yearbooks: Statistics Sweden

Water reporting: Geological Survey of Sweden

Country: Switzerland

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Federal Office for the Environment

Statistical yearbooks: Federal Statistical Office

Water reporting: Federal Office for the Environment

Country: Tajikistan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Committee for Environmental protection

Statistical yearbooks: Statistical Agency

Water reporting: State Hydrometeorology Agency

Country: Turkey

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation

Statistical yearbooks: Turkish Statistical Institute

Water reporting: Ministry of Forestry and Water Works

Country: Turkmenistan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry for the Protection of Nature

Statistical yearbooks: State Committee of Turkmenistan on Statistics

Water reporting: Ministry for the Protection of Nature

Country: Ukraine

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine

Statistical yearbooks: State Statistics Committee

Water reporting: Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of Ukraine

Country: United Kingdom

Organisation producing SoE assessments: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

Statistical yearbooks: Office for National Statistics

Water reporting: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

Country: Uzbekistan

Organisation producing SoE assessments: State Committee for Nature Protection

Statistical yearbooks: State Statistics Committee

Water reporting: State Committee for Nature Protection

Annex 2.2 Overview of international organisations involved in environmental assessments

Annex 2.2

Annex 2.2 continued

Note: FAO Water Management country profiles, see the individual countries. Available at http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index.asp?lang=en&iso3=ALB&paia=4. FAO-Aquastat available at http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm. UNCSD freshwater profile (freshwater and sanitation) available at http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_indecsdthemprof.shtml#water. Water Wiki http://waterwiki.net/index.php/Countries#Europe_and_CIS. GEMS/Water status of participating countries http://www.gemswater.org/global_network/statistical_summary.html.

Annex 2.3 Overview of years in which environmental performance reviews were conducted by OECD and UNECE

Annex 2.3

Annex 2.3 continued

Chapter 3

Annex 3.1 Green economy — What does it mean?

Green economy (Priority areas)


Renewable energy

Explanation:

Energy which is naturally replenished and comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, freshwater, tides or geothermal heat.

Relevance to green economy::

Different parts of the world have a competitive advantage in different renewable energy technologies, depending on geography, climate, etc. In addition, many governments offer subsidies or incentives for renewable energy generation, and there are national/regional renewable energy/greenhouse gas reduction targets that drive investment in this area.

Examples of assessments:

  • The European Renewable Energy Council reports renewable energy generation and other statistics for EU-27 countries (EREC, 2011).
  • In Germany, electricity from renewable sources is supported through a feed-in tariff and electricity from renewable sources is given priority connection to the grid. The Renewable Energy Sources Act aims to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources in total energy supply to at least 30 per cent by 2020 and to continuously increase this proportion thereafter (BMU, 2010).
  • The Czech government' s most recent national report on electricity and gas industries covers progress in 2009 (The Czech Republic' s National Report on the Electricity and Gas Industries for 2009, 2010).
  • The UK renewable energy strategy sets out how the sector' s role in meeting ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets (DECC, 2011).

Energy efficiency

Explanation:

Changes in behaviour and technology that lead to reductions in amount of energy required to provide products and services.

Relevance to green economy:

As with other aspects of resource efficiency, doing ' more with less' reduces environmental impacts, enhances competitiveness and provides opportunities for growth. Initiatives are often driven by carbon reduction targets or concerns over energy security.

Examples of assessments:

  • The European Union has a target to reduce annual energy consumption by 20 per cent by 2020 (EC, 2011).
  • In Georgia, a review of energy efficiency potential and policy options has highlighted a range of drivers, including potential EU membership and positive impacts on economic and social development (USAID, Georgia, 2008).
  • Energy Efficiency in Russia: Untapped Reserve (World Bank/Russia, 2008).
  • Energy efficiency in Poland in years 1998-2008 (Central Statistical Office, Warsaw, 2010).

Mobility

Explanation:

The environmental impacts of transport, including air quality, emissions, noise.

Relevance to green economy: Essentially related to the reduction in pollution of different media, which has beneficial impacts on health, welfare and productivity.

Examples of assessments:

  • 51 out of the 56 UNECE member countries are Parties to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. A 2010 Review presents progress to date in implementing the Convention across the UNECE region (CEIPT, 2010).
  • The Netherlands has assessed the Traffic emissions of carbon and organic carbon (PBL, 2009).
  • Annual Report of Air Pollution 2009 (Greece, Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change).
  • Trends in Air Quality in Germany (Umweltbundesamt, For our Environment, 2009).

Industry

Explanation:

Emissions, waste and resource use from industrial production and processes.

Relevance to green economy:

Relative reductions in emissions and waste are associated with efficiency improvements, innovation, improved environmental quality and public health benefits.

Examples of assessments:

  • Steady as she goes: Norway' s strategy for environmentally friendly growth in maritime industry (Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry, 2007).
  • Study of municipal waste management in Hungary 2010 (KVVM, 2010).

Innovation

Explanation:

Any change that renews or improves a product or process.

Relevance to green economy:

Environmental or eco-innovation is now widely used as a means of reducing the environmental impacts from economic activity.

Examples of assessments:

  • The OECD has developed a workstream on the links between eco-innovation in industry and green growth, with examples from a number of member countries (OECD, 2011a).
  • Innovation for a Green Economy — Environment and Technology: A win-win story (EPA, Ireland, 2009).
  • Environmental Technologies and Eco-Innovation in the Czech Republic (CENIA, 2009).

Environmental Impact Assessment /Strategic Impact Assessment (EIA/SIA)

Explanation:

Environmental or strategic impact assessment.

Relevance to green economy:

These policymaking tools are widely used to measure the environmental impacts of a decision or policy change.

Examples of assessments:

  • UNEP manual on integrated environmental assessment and reporting (UNEP, 2008).
  • The 1991 Espoo Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context applies to all UNECE members. It sets out obligations to assess the environmental impact of activities at an early planning stage and to consult each other on projects that have a significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries (UNECE, 2006).

Governance

Explanation:

Institutional arrangements, multilateral agreements, etc.

Relevance to green economy:

The structures, institutions and governing bodies that are required to develop, implement and enforce the policies designed to move towards a green economy.

Examples of assessments:

  • The Changing Wealth of Nations (World Bank, 2011).
  • Beyond Rio+20: Governance for a Green Economy (International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2011).
  • Environmental Governance in the Context Of Green Growth In Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia: Main Policy Conclusions (OECD, 2011b).

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and environmental reporting

Explanation:

All voluntary and self-regulating mechanisms in the private sector designed to ensure active compliance with spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms.

Relevance to green economy:

The triple bottom line of people, planet and profit is the axiom most commonly identified with CSR and environmental reporting. It includes actions that encourage a positive impact through activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and other.

Examples of assessments:

  • In Greece, the Hellenic network for CSR seeks to promote the concept of CSR and visibility to both the business and the social environment, with a view to achieving balanced and sustainable earnings growth (Hellenic Network for Corporate Social Responsibility, 2011).
  • Reporting environmental information in annual reports: Analysis of legal requirements in the Nordic countries (Norden, 2008).
  • Carbon Disclosure Project, a forum for measuring and disclosing greenhouse gas emissions, water use and climate change strategies (Carbon Disclosure Project, 2011).

Futures and scenarios

Explanation:

Vulnerability, opportunities, competitiveness and migration.

Relevance to green economy:

These are emerging or future issues that will impact, either positively or negatively, on the ability of a country or region to develop a green economy.

Examples of assessments:

  • The pan-European environment: glimpses into an uncertain future (EEA, 2007).
  • In Ireland, Future Skills Needs of Enterprise within the Green Economy identifies 6 sub-sectors as having business/employment growth potential, including renewables and green ICT applications (Expert Group on Future Skills Needs, 2010).
  • Baltic 21 Triennial report (Baltic 21, 2009).
  • EEA megatrends 2010 report, analysis of 11 global megatrends, with links to Europe' s priority environmental challenges, and reflections on possible implications for policymaking (EEA, 2010).

Mining

Explanation:

Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological, non-renewable material from the earth.

Relevance to green economy:

Virtually any material that cannot be grown or created artificially has to be mined, creating potential negative impacts on the environment.

Examples of assessments:

  • UNDP programme for pioneering a green economy is supporting the transformation of abandoned mines in Balkans as eco-tourism hubs (UNDP, 2011).
  • Mining and environment in the Western Balkans (Environment and Security Initiative, 2011).

Resource efficiency

Use of natural capital

Explanation:

Forestry, agriculture, urbanisation and other human activities leading to use and degradation of land, soil, water and biodiversity.

Relevance to green economy:

Natural capital can be used more efficiently (resource efficiency), but it can also be degraded, leading to reduced welfare and environmental legacy issues such as pollution.

Examples of assessments:

  • GLOBE international natural capital initiative (Globe International, 2011).
  • The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature (2010) (TEEB, 2010).
  • UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK NEA, 2011).
  • Resource consumption of Germany — indicators and definitions (Umweltbundesamt, 2008).
  • Natural resource consumption of Finnish households (Finland' s environmental administration, 2008).
  • Forests and Climate Change in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (FAO, 2010).

Water efficiency

Explanation:

Per unit reductions in the amount of water used in industrial, rural and urban areas.

Relevance to green economy:

Doing ' more with less' reduces environmental impacts, enhances competitiveness, gives opportunities for growth. Initiatives are often driven by carbon reduction targets or concerns over energy security.

Examples of assessments:

  • The efficient use of water in agriculture in Central Asia has been supported by the World Bank. The work recognises that water availability is a major challenge and that agriculture in the region is dependent on irrigation (World Bank, 2009).
  • The efficiency of the water supply in Croatia (Institute for Public Finance, 2008).
  • Food and drink sector Federation House 2020 commitment (FHC2020, 2009).

Life-cycle analysis (LCA)

Explanation:

Full account of environmental impacts of producing, supplying, consuming and disposing of a good or service, whether these are within national borders or elsewhere.

Relevance to green economy:

Broadens the interpretation of resource to bring in consideration of environmental impacts prior to production (beginning with raw material extraction) and following consumption (to disposal).

Examples of assessments:

  • Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products (UNEP, 2009) (The Dutch sustainable trade initiative seeks to mainstream the social and ecological sustainability of commodity supplies from emerging markets to the Netherlands and Western Europe. It includes analysis of the life cycle impacts of a range of goods, including timber, cocoa and tea (IDH, 2011).
  • Life cycle analysis applied to first generation biofuels consumed in France (Ministry of Agriculture, 2010).

Environmental accounting

Explanation:

Valuation of natural capital and financial instruments such as green taxes, trading schemes, charges and levies.

Relevance to green economy:

Environmental accounting tools are used to bring non-market (environmental) goods and services into decision-making, providing incentives to producers and consumers.

Examples of assessments:

  • Use of economic instruments in environmental policy (UNEP, 2004).
  • Environmental statistics and accounts in Europe (Eurostat, 2010).
  • The EU Emissions Trading System is a cornerstone of the EU' s policy to combat climate change and its key tool for reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively. It is the first and biggest international scheme for the trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances, the EU ETS covers some 11 000 power stations and industrial plants in 30 countries (EC, 2010a).

Sustainable consumption and production (SCP)

Explanation:

Reducing environmental impacts while improving or maintaining economic outputs.

Relevance to green economy:

Generally takes a broader life cycle approach than other interpretations of resource efficiency.

Examples of assessments:

  • The European Commission has a number of examples of green public procurement, including an energy self-sufficient primary school in Malta and green city administration vehicles in Slovenia (EC, 2010b).
  • Time for action: towards sustainable consumption and production in Europe (EEA, 2008).
  • Sustainable Consumption: Examples from Germany (Umweltbundesamt, 2006).
  • Getting more and better from less — Proposals for Finland' s national programme to promote SCP (Committee on Sustainable Consumption and Production, 2005).

Tourism

Explanation:

The greening of the travel and tourism sector.

Relevance to green economy:

Green tourism creates opportunities for new jobs, resource efficiency and poverty reduction.

Examples of assessments:

  • Turismo de Portugal Sustainability Report 2009 (MEID, 2009).

Note: The two priority areas ' innovation' and ' mining' were added by the EEA.

Annex 3.2 Key aspects of assessments in priority areas


Green economy (Priority areas)


Renewable energy

Number and frequency of assessments:

A large number of assessments produced at least annually (some more frequent)

Size and type of assessments:

Range from high-level (e.g. per cent of total energy from renewables) to detailed breakdown of energy by type (heat, transport, electricity) and technology (e.g. wind, wave, biomass)

Main developments:

Assessments in this area have been increasing rapidly in number, level of detail and frequency. Goals and targets are often defined.

Basis of assessments:

Generally based on comprehensive and audited data provided by government and/or private sector

Geographical aspects:

All countries covered but most comprehensive in Northern and Western Europe. Balkans and new EU Member States more patchy.


Energy efficiency

Number and frequency of assessments:

Most assessments look at the background to or scope for energy efficiency

Size and type of assessments:

Range from short overview assessments and factsheets to detailed long-term strategies, with consideration of progress, barriers, opportunities, etc.

Main developments:

Increasingly linked to wider resource efficiency, behaviour (sustainable consumption), green growth (economic growth without increasing GHG emissions or air pollution) and life-cycle analysis

Basis of assessments:

Past consumption based on energy consumption time series data. Future consumption based on international comparisons, technological changes, GDP growth, etc.

Geographical aspects:

Well established in most areas, with increasingly detailed assessments from Western Balkans and new EU Member States

 

Innovation

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very few and far between, often led by pan-regional organisations

Size and type of assessments:

Ad-hoc

Main developments:

Linked to economic recovery and growth (Lisbon agenda). Generally applied to ' traditional' areas, e.g. transport, energy

Basis of assessments:

Identification of opportunities for GDP growth and job creation

Geographical aspects:

Poor coverage in all areas


Mobility

Number and frequency of assessments:

Good number of annual and ad-hoc assessments

Size and type of assessments:

Range of high-level strategies, annual progress reports and action plans

Main developments:

Most focus on transport (modes, behaviour, road pricing, integrated transport systems, etc.) and air pollution (especially links to emissions and climate change)

Basis of assessments:

Mostly air quality measurements (with comprehensive range of indicators) and transport patterns (e.g. freight demand, car use). Very little on noise

Geographical aspects:

Focused on heavily developed countries


Industry

Number and frequency of assessments:

Good number of annual and ad-hoc assessments

Size and type of assessments:

Breakdown of waste types (e.g. hazardous, non-hazardous) and pollution sources (Assessments on emissions are generally part of energy sector reports, where industry is one of many sectors).

Main developments:

Increasingly considering solutions and policy responses, e.g. domestic waste charging, separation systems. Also life cycle, cradle to grave assessments and new opportunities, e.g. waste as renewable energy source

Basis of assessments:

Robust and comprehensive data from industrial sectors

Geographical aspects:

All areas well covered


EIA/SIA

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very few

Size and type of assessments:

Undertaken by pan-regional bodies and often applied to transboundary issues

Main developments:

Compliance with International conventions(especially re transboundary issues) and guidance from European Commission and others

Basis of assessments:

Questionnaires completed by participating countries

Geographical aspects:

All countries covered by legislation and using EIA, but very few specific assessments


Governance

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very few

Size and type of assessments:

Strategic think pieces or proposals by pan-regional bodies

Main developments:

Futures and scenarios (e.g. vulnerability of poorer regions to environmental degradation and loss of natural capital, opportunities arising from improved environmental protection and the socio-economic effects of migration due to climate change and other factors

Basis of assessments:

Generally based on in-depth but ad-hoc reviews of national institutional arrangements

Geographical aspects:

Focused on emerging or transitional economies


CSR and environmental reporting

Number and frequency of assessments:

Large number of regular and ad-hoc assessments

Size and type of assessments:

Large variation from public and non-public organisations

Main developments:

Often at cutting edge, with integrated assessments coming to the fore

Basis of assessments:

Generally based on primary data from industry or trade associations

Geographical aspects:

Most coverage in Northern and Western Europe


Futures and scenarios

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very few specific assessments, though most assessments consider future challenges

Size and type of assessments:

A range, from high level to in-depth and from different regional, national and non-public bodies

Main developments:

Climate change, migration

Regional organisations often talk about developing new partnerships and extending geographical scope

Basis of assessments:

Often trend-based, but increasingly focused on forecast and complex probabilistic scenarios (e.g. for climate change)

Geographical aspects:

Good coverage in all regions


Mining

Number and frequency of assessments:

Reasonably comprehensive

Size and type of assessments:

Range of organisations involved, including regional, national and non-public bodies

Main developments:

Increasingly concerned with rehabilitation following mine closure (e.g. contaminated water, tailings management)

Basis of assessments:

International good practice principles

Geographical aspects:

Focused on countries with significant ongoing mining industries, or with legacy issues


Resource efficiency


Use of natural capital

Number and frequency of assessments:

Comprehensive assessments are largely limited to occasional, high-level and international issues

Size and type of assessments:

Mainly strategic documents and think pieces at global level, and sector focused (e.g. forestry) at national level

Main developments:

Increasingly recognised as a means of bringing environmental assets into mainstream decision-making and improving protection of natural resources. Terminology still evolving, with some assessments including finite natural resources (e.g. oil)

Basis of assessments:

Robust and comprehensive time series data on material stocks and flows in key sectors

Geographical aspects:

Content of assessments largely reflects extent of primary industry in country (e.g. forestry, mining, fishing)


Water efficiency

Number and frequency of assessments:

Increasing in number but ad-hoc rather than planned or programmed

Size and type of assessments:

Mainly sector based (most on industrial or domestic consumption, less in rural areas) and varying in level of detail

Main developments:

Consider broader issues (availability, affordability, appropriate water pricing). Increasingly interested in water footprint (embedded water) and re-use

Basis of assessments:

Lots of reports from environment agencies, private and third sectors covering water use, stress, abstraction, efficiency, etc.

Geographical aspects:

Most common in water scarce and well-developed countries


LCA

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very few and far between. Often rather narrow and specific (e.g. recycling or minimising waste)

Size and type of assessments:

Application of LCA to specific sectors, products or topics

Main developments:

Still developing methodologies and guidelines for assessing LCA (e.g. carbon and water footprint of imported products)

Basis of assessments:

Bottom-up approaches based on consumption and production patterns for products and services

Geographical aspects:

Poor coverage in all areas


Environmental accounting

Number and frequency of assessments:

Very sparse, mainly focused on high-level concepts and principles

Size and type of assessments:

Mainly regional national attempts to stimulate debate

Main developments:

Some sectors (e.g. forests) better understood and covered than others (e.g. soil). Largely focused on developing metrics, e.g. through ecosystem services approach

Basis of assessments:

Based on economic value of different sectors, plus flows of raw or processed material, also material imports and exports, domestic material consumption per GDP

Geographical aspects:

Poor coverage in all areas


SCP

Number and frequency of assessments:

Gradually increasing in number and range

Size and type of assessments:

Cover both regional and national

Main developments:

Driven increasingly by national sustainable development strategies and programmes, and focused on specific themes or areas (e.g. public procurement). Also decoupling resource use (e.g. energy, material extraction) and environmental pressures (e.g. CO2) from economic growth, ecological footprint

Basis of assessments:

Generally case study based but including various indicators (e.g. production and consumption by sector, resource consumption, number of companies with ISO 14001 and ISO 9001 certification)

Geographical aspects:

Least well developed in Western Balkans, Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia


Tourism

Number and frequency of assessments:

Relatively few and infrequent assessments

Size and type of assessments:

Generally national, but some regional assessments (e.g. OSPAR Commission)

Main developments:

Impacts of tourism on environment (e.g. landtake, demand for water, erosion)

Basis of assessments:

Mix of regular, time-series data (e.g. number of establishments and bed spaces, arrivals by country) and project-based info

Geographical aspects:

Focused on countries with established tourism sectors

Geographical coverage

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