Air pollution in Europe 1990-2004
Publication Created 13 Nov 2007 Published 13 Nov 2007
Percentage of the urban population potentially exposed to pollutant concentrations over selected limit/target values
EEA-32 primary and secondary particulate matter emissions (PM10), 1990-2004 Total energy consumption is what Eurostat refers to as Gross Inland Energy Consumption (in million tonnes oil equivalents)
Benzene concentrations, annual average, at stations in Europe, 2004 LAT/UAT: lower/upper assessment threshold; LV/MT: limit value/margin of tolerance.
Ozone inter-annual variations, SOMO35, 1996-2004 Urban, traffic, and rural background stations vertical bars represent 10th and 90th percentiles.
Modelled ozone concentrations expressed as SOMO35 for the year 2000 (left) and 2010 (right) for the CAFE baseline scenario
The estimated effect (for EU-25) of introduction of the Large Combustion Plant Directive on the emission of SO2
Distance to target for benzene at urban and traffic stations, 2004 Average is across all stations, ´average &gt; limit value´ is average of stations exceeding the limit value, maximum; is the ´maximum´ station
Exposure of urban population in EEA-32 countries to maximum ozone concentration above the 8h-daily mean target value of 120 µg/m3
The effect in the EU-25 of introducing vehicle emission standards in road transport (left) and emission abatement at large combustion plants (right) on the emission of NOX
Total emissions of acidifying substances (sulphur plus nitrogen) and of eutrophying nitrogen in the EEA-32 for 1990 to 2004
Modelled decreases in ozone concentrations in year 2003 due to the introduction of European road vehicle emission standards (left) and the Large Combustion Plant Directive (right)
PM10 distance-to-target, 2004: average concentrations, average at stations exceeding limit values, and maximum concentration Numbers give stations in each category
EEA-32 emissions of total ozone precursors, and of precursors subject to targets (NMVOC and NOX), 1990-2004 The EEA32 country grouping includes EEA31 member countries + Croatia.
Total acidifying emissions by economic sector for EEA country groupings, 2004, and contributions from each sector and pollutant to total change 1990-2004
EEA-32 National emission reductions for ozone precursors (green), and remaining distance to reduction targets for EU Member States (purple)
Total TOFP emissions by economic sector for EEA country groupings, 2004, and contributions of each sector and pollutant to total change 1990-2004
Distance to target (2004) for arsenic, cadmium and nickel at urban and rural stations ´Average´ is average across all stations, ´avg&nbsp;&gt; LV´ is average of those stations exceeding the target value, ´max´ is the maximum station
Health impact of PM mass concentrations (µg/m3). Loss in statistical life expectancy (months) that can be attributed to anthropogenic contributions to PM2.5 for the year 2000 (left) and for 2020 (right) for the CAFE baseline scenario
Left panels: observed and modelled PM10 concentrations. Right panels: ratio of the maximum modelled yearly concentrations for 2002-2003 to 1997-2001 Left column: Model calculations evaluated two cases: 1) reported real emissions and 2) constant emissions, i.e
Percentage changes in emissions of acidifying substances (SO2, NOX and NH3) over the period 1990 to 2004, and comparison with NEC Directive targets
Modelled decreases in NO2 concentrations due to the introduction of European Road Vehicle emission standards (left) and the Large Combustion Plant Directive (right) Improvements are values above zero (positive decrease in NO2 concentrations).
Inter-annual variations of mean daily PM10 concentrations, 1997-2004 Vertical bars: 10th/90th percentiles.
Development of concentrations of NOX (dots) and NO2 (lines) at 450 urban, transport and rural stations in eight countries with NOX and NO2 data for all years 1998-2004
Blood PCB levels in humans, observed across the Arctic PCB levels in the blood of women of reproductive age
Total particulate emissions by economic sector for EEA country groupings in 2004, and contributions from each sector and pollutant to total change since 1990
PM10 annual average inter-annual variations, 1997-2004 at selected urban background stations Only cities where measurements were available at two stations over the whole period 19972004 were selected (&amp;gt; 70 % data coverage annually).
The effect (for EU-25) of introducing vehicle emission standards in road transport on the emission of NMVOC
PM10 concentrations, 2004, hot spot traffic/industrial stations, 36th highest daily value LCL/UCL: Lower (30 ¼g/m3)/Upper (50 ¼g/m3) classification level LV/MT: Limit value/Margin of tolerance.
Measured PM2.5 concentrations, 2004 (µg/m3, annual average) for several countries Each bar represents average concentrations for each station type
NO2 inter-annual variations, 1996-2004 (all stations with 8 monitoring years) Vertical bars: 10th and 90th percentiles.
EEA-32 sector contributions to the main air pollution issues, 2004 The first two bars (top-down) refer to ecosystem impacts, the third to human health impacts, and the fourth to health and vegetation impacts Energy industry: Emissions from public heat and electricity generation including fugitive emissions; Manufacturing industry: combustion and non-combustion processes; Commercial and institutional services and household: Combustion and non-combustion processes; Road transport: light and heavy duty vehicles, passenger cars and motorcycles; Off-road transport: railways, domestic shipping, certain aircraft movements, and non-road mobile machinery used in agriculture, forestry; Agriculture: manure management, fertiliser application; Waste: incineration, waste-water management.
EEA-32 national emission reductions for acidifying pollutants (green) and remaining distance to emission reduction targets for EU Member States (purple)
EEA-32 national emission changes from 1990 to 2004 for acidifying pollutants, and remaining reduction targets under the National Emission Ceiling Directive (NECD) for EU Member States
Frequency distribution of trends in 8h-daily maximum values, 1996-2004 629 stations with 75 % data coverage p.a
PM10 concentrations in Europe 2004, showing annual average concentrations The figures were constructed by combining rural and urban maps using population density
Days exceeding the target value as 3-year average 2002-2004 In 2004 urban/suburban background areas provided 44 % of stations, rural background areas 24 %, traffic sites 18 %, 9 %, industrial, and 5 % not properly classified.
Exceedance of the critical loads for eutrophication in Europe (as average accumulated exceedances), 2004 How to read the map: for Norway, exceedances of the critical load for nutrient nitrogen are in general not a major problem. Size of grid-cell: 50 km x 50 km.
Annual variation in the ozone AOT40 value (May-July) Average values over all rural stations which reported data over at least six years in the period 1996-2004
PM10 concentrations in Europe 2004 showing the 36th highest daily value The figures were constructed by combining rural and urban maps using population density
Daily maximum 8-hourly mean ozone concentrations at an urban background location in central London and a rural background location, 2003 Urban background location in central London = Bloomsbury (blue line)
PM10, inter-annual variations, 1997-2004, 36th highest daily value per year Street = 28 stations, Urban = 59 stations, Rural = 17 stations
Percentage of the urban population in EEA-32 potentially exposed to pollutant concentrations over selected limit/target values
Total emissions of acidifying substances (sulphur, nitrogen) and of eutrophying nitrogen in the EEA-32 for 1990 to 2004
EEA-32 sector contributions to the main air pollution issues, 2004 The first two bars (top-down) relate to ecosystem impacts, the third to human health impacts and the fourth to health and vegetation impacts
NO2 concentrations, annual average, at urban background stations, 2004 LAT/UAT: lower/upper assessment threshold; LV/MT: limit value/margin of tolerance.
Traffic related toxics (2004): Distance to target for lead and carbon monoxide at urban and traffic stations The limit value is shown as a bold line, with observed concentrations as columns
Exceedance of critical loads of acidity, EMEP 2004 deposition data This map shows areas in Europe where ecosystems are exposed to atmospheric loads of acidity (sulphur plus nitrogen compounds) that are greater than the critical load for the most sensitive ecosystem in each 50 x 50 grid cell.
Identified anthropogenic contribution to rural PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean, ug/m3) for 2000 and 2010, for CAFE baseline emissions; using four-year average meteorological conditions
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2007_2 or scan the QR code.
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