Title and Table of Contents

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Tropospheric Ozone in the European Union
"The Consolidated Report"

Topic report no. 8/1998

J.P. Beck1 , M.Krzyzanowski2, B. Koffi3


with contributions from:

A.-G. Hjellbrekke4, H. Hootsen1, Millán M. Millán5 5, M. Tombrou6, D. Simpson7

November 1998


Table of contents


1. Introduction

2. Tropospheric ozone: background information
    2.1 The issue of ozone in Europe
    2.2 Chemical formation of ozone
    2.3 Spatial scales
        2.3.1 The phenomenology of rural ozone in Europe
        2.3.2 The phenomenology of episodes
    2.4 Trends in tropospheric ozone
    2.5 Photochemical ozone creation potential
    2.6 Source-receptor relations

3. Sources of ozone precursors
    3.1 Legislation aiming at emission reductions

4. The current Ozone Directive and other relevant legislation
    4.1 Council Directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone
        4.1.1 Monitoring requirements under the Ozone Directive
        4.1.2 Assessment of exposures, risks and effects versus the network description
    4.2 Other relevant legislation
        4.2.1 Council Decision 97/101/EC - Exchange of Information (EoI)

5. Information reported to the Commission under Council Directive 92/72/EEC in 1994-1996
    5.1 Monitoring stations
    5.2 Summary of data reported
        5.2.1 Interannual variation
    5.3 Exceedance of EU threshold values
        5.3.1 Protection of human health
        5.3.2 Protection of vegetation
        5.3.3 Information and warning thresholds
        5.3.4 Experiences with public information
    5.4 Exceedance of WHO guidelines
        5.4.1 WHO guidelines
        5.4.2 AOT60 - human health
        5.4.3 AOT40 and crops
        5.4.4 AOT40 and forests
    5.5 Characterisation of the ozone phenomenology from a meteorological perspective
        5.5.1 Ozone exceedances and weather type over Middle Europe
        5.5.2 Ozone conducive meteorological parameters
        5.5.3 Photochemical formation of ozone
        5.5.4 Long-range transport
        5.5.5 Downward transport from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

6. Health effects of exposure to ozone
    6.1 Health significance of exposure to ozone
    6.2 Estimation of health impact of exposure to ozone in 15 EU countries

7. Discussion and conclusions
    7.1 The Ozone Directive and 5EAP
    7.2 Information collected
    7.3 Evaluation of photochemical pollution and emissions of precursors
    7.4 Conclusions from the meteorological perspective


Appendix 1 Characterisation of the ozone phenomenology
    I.1 Ozone exceedances and the weather type over Middle Europe
    I.2. Ozone conducive meteorological parameters
    I.3 Photochemical formation of ozone
    I.4. Long-range transport
    I.5 Transport down from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere

Appendix 2 Summary of data reported

Appendix 3 Ozone in southern Europe

1 European Topic Centre on Air Quality, RIVM, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
2 WHO-ECEH, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
3 CEC Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
4 European Topic Centre on Air Quality, NILU, Kjeller, Norway
5 CEAM, Valencia, Spain
6 European Topic Centre on Air Quality, NOA-University of Athens, Athens, Greece

7 European Topic Centre on Air Quality, DNMI, Oslo, Norway

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100