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Table of Contents

Inland Waters - Europe's Environment: The Dobris Assessment (Chapter 05)

5.1 - Introduction
5.2 - The Water Resource
5.2.1 - The hydrological cycle
5.2.2 - Water resources
5.2.3 - River flow characteristics in Europe
5.2.3.1 - Average annual runoff
5.2.3.2 - Seasonal river flow regimes
5.2.3.3 - Inter-annual variability
5.2.3.4 - Human influences on river flow regimes
5.2.3.5 - Main sources of water abstraction
5.3 - Groundwater
5.3.1 - Characteristics and distribution
5.3.2 - Recharge and loads
5.3.3 - Groundwater quantity
5.3.3.1 - Abstraction
5.3.3.2 - Potential wetland damage
5.3.3.3 - Raising of groundwater levels
5.3.4 - Groundwater pollution
5.3.4.1 - Point sources
5.3.4.2 - Nitrate leaching
5.3.4.3 - Pesticides
5.3.4.4 - Acidification
5.4 - Rivers, Reservoirs and Lakes
5.4.1 - Introduction
5.4.2 - Characteristics of European rivers, reservoirs and lakes
5.4.2.1 - European rivers
5.4.2.1.1 - Major European river catchments
5.4.2.1.2 - Major rivers in European cities
5.4.2.2 - European lakes and reservoirs
5.4.2.2.1 - Natural lakes in Europe
5.4.2.2.2 - Human-made lakes
5.4.2.2.3 - Large lakes and reservoirs in Europe
5.4.2.2.4 - Deep and shallow lakes and reservoirs
5.4.3 - Regulation of European rivers
5.4.3.1 - Reservoirs
5.4.3.1.1 - Reservoir usage
5.4.3.1.2 - Environmental problems related to reservoirs
5.4.3.2 - River channelisation
5.4.3.2.1 - Physical and biological effects
5.4.4 - Organic pollution of rivers
5.4.4.1 - Organic matter contents in European rivers
5.4.4.2 - Human activities and organic matter
5.4.4.3 - Assessment of river quality
5.4.4.4 - Trends in organic matter discharge to rivers
5.4.5 - Nutrients in European rivers and lakes
5.4.5.1 - Nutrient concentrations in European rivers
5.4.5.1.1 - Phosphorus in rivers
5.4.5.1.2 - Nitrogen in rivers
5.4.5.2 - Nutrient concentration in European lakes
5.4.5.2.1 - Phosphorus in lakes
5.4.5.2.2 - Nitrogen in lakes
5.4.5.2.3 - Phosphorus concentration in large lakes
5.4.5.3 - Impact of nutrients on lake water quality
5.4.5.3.1 - Blue-green algae and phosphorus
5.4.5.4 - Trends in nutrient concentrations
5.4.5.4.1 - Phosphorus trends
5.4.5.4.2 - Nitrogen trends
5.4.6 - Acidification of surface waters
5.4.6.1 - Acidification of surface waters in Europe
5.4.6.2 - Impact of acidification
5.4.6.3 - Acidification trends
5.4.6.4 - Critical loads
5.4.7 - Heavy metals, organic micropollutants, radioactivity and other hazards
5.4.7.1 - Heavy metals
5.4.7.1.1 - Cadmium
5.4.7.1.2 - Copper
5.4.7.1.3 - Zinc
5.4.7.2 - Organic micropollutants
5.4.7.2.1 - Accidents and leakage from waste disposal sites
5.4.7.3 - Radioactivity
5.4.7.3.1 - Nuclear power production and radioactive waste
5.4.7.3.2 - Accidents
5.4.7.4 - Other hazards
5.4.7.4.1 - Pathogens
5.4.7.4.2 - Salinisation
5.5 - Conclusions
5.5.1 - The water resource
5.5.2 - Groundwater
5.5.3 - Rivers and lakes in Europe
5.5.4 - Endpiece

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