5. Conclusions and Recommendations
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
1. Data for 1997 have been received by the European Commission from all Member States. In addition, information for 6 other European countries has been received.
The 15 EU Member States provided information on ozone
concentrations for a total 984 monitoring stations. Switzerland, the Czech Republic,
Latvia, Norway, Poland and Slovakia provided information on ozone concentrations for 100
2 The threshold value set for the protection of human health was exceeded substantially in all reporting countries.
The threshold value of 110 µg/m3 (8h-average) was exceeded
substantially (in about 25% of the reported exceedances the 8h-average
concentrations exceeded 165 µg/m3).
3. The threshold values set for the protection of vegetation were exceeded substantially and in almost all EU Member States.
The threshold value of 65 µg/m3 (24h average) is reported to
be exceeded substantially (by up to a factor 3), widely (in all reporting countries) and
frequently (nearly all countries report exceedances during more than 100 days at one or
more of their stations). The threshold value of 200 µg/m3 (hourly average) is
exceeded largely and widely (in total 13 countries, 10 EU Member States) on a limited
number of days.
4. The threshold value for information of the population was exceeded in almost all EU Member States during a limited number of days.
Exceedance of the information threshold value of 180 µg/m3
(1 h average) was reported for stations in 15 countries (12 EU Member States). For one
station (Lykovrissi, Athens) an exceedance of the warning level of 360 µg/m3
(1h average) was reported.
5. The spatial coverage and quality documentation of the data need further improvement.
Depending on the local situation, the ozone monitoring stations are characterised as rural, urban, street or other (e.g. industrial). Further work towards a harmonised classification system is recommended.
The present subsets of rural stations and urban stations are not representative for the land area of the EU and the urban population, respectively.
Spatial coverage and documentation of the monitoring data quality need
improvement if the level of protection of human health and ecosystems in Europe to
elevated ozone levels is to be fully assessed. Member States are encouraged to reconsider
their ozone measuring networks in the light of the spatial coverage of ozone monitoring
stations. It is recommended to improve the documentation on the representativity and on
the surrounding of the existing stations.
6. It is recommended to improve the reporting of ozone precursors (NOx, NO2 and VOC).
NOx measurements should be co-located with the ozone monitoring stations as NOx can be used as an indicator of the station representativity. Moreover, precursor concentrations will be needed for testing of compliance with VOC and NOx emission reduction programs.
Anderson H.R., Spix C., Medina S., Schouten J.P., Castellsague J., Rossi G., Zmirou D., Touloumi G., Wojtyniak B., Ponka A., Bacharova L., Schwarts J. and Katsouyanni K. (1997) Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 Europen cities: results from the APHEA project. Eur. Respir J. 10, 1064-1071.
Barrett K. and Berge E. (eds) (1996) Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 1: Estimated dispersion of acidifying agents and of near surface ozone. EMEP/MSC-W Report 1/96. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
Beck J.P., Kryzanowski M. and Koffi B. (1998) Tropospheric ozone in the European Union. "The consolidated Report", European Topic Centre on Air Quality, Report presented to the Steering Group on Ambient Air Quality, Brussels,
Borrell, P. and van den Hout D. (1995) Tropospheric ozone - a review of current understanding. Doc.Ref XI/363/95, European Commission, Brussels.
Borrell P., Builtjes P., Grennfelt P. and Hov Ø (eds) (1997) Photo-oxidants, acidification and tools. Policy application of EUROTRAC results. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Bull K.R. (1991) The critical load/level approach to gaseous pollutant emission control. Environ. Pollut., 69, 105-123.
De Leeuw F., Sluyter R. Van Zantvoort E. and Larssen S. (1995) Exceedance of Ozone threshold values in the European Community in 1994. Summary based on the information reported in the framework of the Council Directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone. European Topic Centre on Air Quality.
De Leeuw F., Sluyter R. and Van Zantvoort E. (1996) Air Pollution by Ozone in the European Union, Exceedance of ozone threshold values in 1995 and summer 1996. EEA-Topic Report 29/1996. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
De Leeuw F., Sluyter R. and Van Zantvoort E. (1997) Air Pollution by Ozone in the European Union, Exceedance of ozone threshold values in 1996 and summer 1997. EEA-Topic Report 7/1997 European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
De Saeger E., Noriega Guerra A., Gerboles M., Rau H., Amantini L. and Perez Ballesta P. (1997) Harmonisation of directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone; inter-comparisons of calibration procedures for ozone measurements. Report EUR 17662, European Commission, Brussels.
Derwent, D. and van den Hout D. (1995) Computer modeling of ozone formation in Europe. Doc.Ref XI/364/95, European Commission, Brussels.
EC (1994). Information Document concerning Air Pollution by Ozone - Overview of the situation in Europe during Summer 1994. European Commission, Brussels.
Gilbert R.O (1987) Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring. Van Nostrand Reinhld, New York.
Hjellbrekke A.G.(1996) Ozone Measurements 1993-1994, EMEP/CCC report 1/96, NILU, Kjeller, Norway.
Hov O. (Editor) (1997) Tropospheric Ozone Research, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Larssen S., Sluyter R., and Helmis C. (1998) Criteria for EUROAIRNET, the EEA Air Quality Monitoring and Information Network. in preparation, ETC/AQ, NILU, Kjeller, Norway.
Malik S., Simpson D., Hjellbrekke A. G., ApSimon H. (1996) Photochemical model calcu-lations over Europe for summer 1990. Model results and comparison with observation. EMEP/MSC-W report 2/96, The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
EMEP MSC-W (1998) Transboundary Photooxidant Air Pollution in EUrope. Calculations of tropospheric ozone and comparison with observations. EMEp/MSC-W report 2/98; Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
PORG (1997). Ozone in the United Kingdom. Fourt report of the Photochemical Oxidant Review Group. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London.
Roemer M. (1996) Trends of tropospheric ozone over Europe. Thesis, University of Utrecht.
Sartor F., Demuth C., Snacken R. and Walckiers D. (1997) Mortality in the elderly and ambient ozone concentration during the hot summer, 1994, in Belgium. Environmental Research, 72, 109-117.
Sluyter R.(editor) (1995) Air Quality in major European cities. Report 722401004, RIVM, Bilthoven.
Van Zantvoort E. and Sluyter R. (1996) Annex to the report: Exceedance of Ozone threshold values in the European Community in 1994. Summary based on the information reported in the framework of the Council Directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone. European Topic Centre on Air Quality./p>
WHO (1996a): Update and revision of the WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. Classical air pollutants: ozone and other photochemical oxidants. European Centre for environment and health, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
WHO (1996b): Update and revision of the WHO air quality guidelines for
Europe. Ecotoxic effects: ozone effects on vegetation. European Centre for environment and
health, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/C1I92-9167-123-1/page006.html or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 22 Jan 2017, 07:57 AM