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Sound and independent information
on the environment

Table of Contents

Noise and Radiation - Europe's Environment: The Dobris Assessment (Chapter 16)

16.1 - Introduction
16.2 - Noise
16.2.1 - The effects of noise
16.2.1.1 - Annoyance
16.2.1.2 - Sleep disturbance
16.2.1.3 - Interference with communication
16.2.1.4 - Extra-auditory effects
16.2.1.5 - Low frequency noise and vibrations
16.2.1.6 - The effects of noise on wildlife
16.2.1.7 - Economic costs
16.2.2 - The sources of noise
16.2.2.1 - Road-traffic noise
16.2.2.2 - Airport and air-traffic noise
16.2.2.3 - Rail-traffic noise
16.2.2.4 - Noise from industry
16.2.2.5 - Recreational activities
16.2.2.6 - Overall noise environment in Europe
16.2.3 - Policies and strategies for noise abatement
16.2.4 - Outlook and conclusions
16.3 - Non-Ionising Radiation
16.3.1 - Electromagnetic fields
16.3.1.1 - Sources
16.3.1.1.1 - Natural
16.3.1.1.2 - Artificial
16.3.1.2 - Effects on EMF
16.3.1.3 - Policy and research
16.3.1.3.1 - Outlook and conclusions
16.3.2 - Ultraviolet radiation
16.3.2.1 - Sources
16.3.2.1.1 - Natural
16.3.2.1.2 - Artificial
16.3.2.2 - Effects
16.3.2.2.1 - Effects on humans
16.3.2.2.2 - Effects on non-human targets
16.3.2.3 - Policies and strategies
16.3.2.4 - Oultlook and conclusions
16.4 - Ionising Radiation
16.4.1 - Sources
16.4.1.1 - Natural
16.4.1.2 - Artificial
16.4.1.2.1 - Medical exposure
16.4.1.2.2 - Radioactive emissions and waste disposal
16.4.1.2.3 - Radiation accidents
16.4.1.2.4 - Weapon testing
16.4.2 - Effects and risks
16.4.3 - Policies and strategies
16.4.3.1 - Natural exposure
16.4.3.2 - Medical exposure
16.4.4 - Outlook and conclusions

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Phone: +45 3336 7100