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Figure Rural concentration map of the ozone indicator AOT40 for forest in 2010
The gradient of the AOT40f values is similar to those of the AOT40c for crops: relative low in northern Europe, and the highest values observed in the countries around the Mediterranean. The critical level is met in north Scandinavia, Ireland, part of the UK and in the coastal regions of the Netherlands (total forested area with concentrations below the critical level is 22 % of a total area of 1.44 million km2). In south Europe levels may be as high as 4-5 times above the critical level.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Exposure of forest area to ozone (exposure expressed as AOT40 in (mg/m³).h) in EEA member countries
Please consider that since 2004 a growing number of member countries has been included. In 2004 Bulgaria, Greece, Iceland, Norway, Romania, Switzerland, and Turkey have not been includedwere added. In For 2005/2006 Iceland, Norway Switzerland and Turkey are were still excluded in the analyses due to lack of detailed land cover data and/or rural ozone data. In 2007 Switzerland and Turkey are were not included. Since 2008 only Turkey is has not beennot included. Calculations of forest exposure are not available for year prior to 2004.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Daviz Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of forests, 2011
Distribution of rural stations by thresholds of AOT40 concentrations for the year 2011. AOT40 concentrations for the protection of forest is the accumulated dose of hourly concentrations of O3 over a threshold of 40 ppb, equivalent to 80 μg/m3, accumulated over five month (April to September).
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Daviz Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of crops, 2011
Distribution of rural stations by thresholds of AOT40 concentrations measured in stations for the year 2011. AOT40 concentrations for the protection of vegetation is the accumulated dose of hourly concentrations of O3 over a threshold of 40 ppb, equivalent to 80 μg/m3, accumulated over three month (May to July).
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Daviz Visualization Concentration status for the target value threshold for protection of human health, 2011
Distribution of stations by thresholds of the 93.15 percentile of the daily maximum of the running 8-h mean O3 concentrations for the year 2011. The chart is based on the 93.15 percentile of the daily maximum of the running 8-h mean O3 concentrations, corresponding to the 26th highest O3 concentration when data availability is 100% over the year.
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Figure Annual changes in concentrations of PM10, O3 and NO2 in the period 2001–2010
The data presented were derived from a consistent set of stations in all years. Statistically significant trends (level of significance 0.1) are calculated by applying the Mann-Kendall test. Increasing concentrations are indicated with red dots and decreasing concentrations with green dots, when statistically significant. The applied method is described in de Leeuw, 2012.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Percentage of the EU urban population exposed to air pollution exceeding WHO air quality guidelines
The figure shows percentage of the EU urban population exposed to air pollution exceeding WHO air quality guidelines
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Daviz Visualization chemical/x-pdb Percentage of urban population resident in areas where pollutant concentrations are higher than selected limit/target values
The rationale for selection of pollutant and corresponding limit/target values for CSI 004 is given in the justification for indicator selection. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece and Malta, are not included due to the geographical coverage of the Urban Audit.
Located in Data and maps Data visualisations
Figure 26th highest maximum daily 8-hour mean ozone concentration observed at (sub)urban background stations, compliance with the target is assured when this value is below 120 ug/m3, 2001-2011 (EU-27)
Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece and Malta is not included due to missing availability of operational urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations in the Urban Audit cities.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Percentage of urban population resident in areas for days per year with ozone concentrations over the long-term objective for protection of human health, 2001-2011 (EU-27)
The target value is 120 µg O3/m3 as daily maximum of 8 hour mean, not to be exceeded more than 25 days per calendar year, averaged over three years and to be achieved where possible by 2010. Over the years 2001-2010 the total population for which exposure estimates are made, increased from 88 to 118 million people due to an increasing number of monitoring stations reporting under the Exchange of Information Decision. Year-to-year variations in exposure classes are partly caused by the changes in spatial coverage. Only urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations have been included in the calculations. Data for Cyprus, Greece and Malta is not included due to missing availability of operational urban and sub-urban background monitoring stations in the Urban Audit cities.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Phone: +45 3336 7100