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Publication Effects of air pollution on European ecosystems
Past and future exposure of European freshwater and terrestrial habitats to acidifying and eutrophying air pollutants
Located in Publications
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Emission intensity of agriculture in Europe (WREI 001) - Assessment published Feb 2014
Nitrogen emission to water: Absolute decoupling of nitrogen emissions from GVA is observed in seven countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia ). This means that these countries succeeded in economy growth while reducing emissions to water. As the area of agriculture land remained constant during the analyzed period, the decrease in emission can be attributed to decrease in specific gross nutrient balance per hectare. Relative decoupling was observed in the Czech Republic, and Poland. This means that the resource efficiency has increased, however with higher absolute emissions.  Decreases in emissions coupled with a decrease in GVA occurred in 11 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom). In six out of those 11 countries, the rate of emission decrease was greater than the rate of the GVA decrease. Phosphorus emission to water: Absolute decoupling of phosphorus emissions from the GVA is observed in five countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, and Slovenia). Decrease in emission coupled with decrease in GVA occurred in ten countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom). In all these countries except Denmark, the rate of emission decrease was greater than the rate of the decrease of GVA. The ranges of nutrient emission intensity of agriculture are quite wide and reflect varieties of agriculture practices across European countries. Values of nitrogen emission intensity for 2008 range from 6,0 to 176 tons of total nitrogen per million EUR GVA per year. Significant decrease in nitrogen emission intensity between 2000 and 2008 was recorded in Bulgaria, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. In 2008 Bulgaria, Portugal and Romania reported (in Eurostat) the lowest values of the specific nitrogen balance per hectare. In creased emission intensity was observed in Denmark, Ireland and United Kingdom, however, this was due to a falling GVA not to emissions, which actually were reduced. Calculation of emission intensity based on GVA diminished by subsidies, which reflects better the actual economic performance from  agriculture, result in much higher emission intensities for countries, e.g.,  Norway, Finland , Lithuania and Poland with relatively high contributions from subsidies to the economy.. The increment in emission intensity associated with excluding subsidies is significant namely in Norway (106 t/mio EUR/y) and Finland (38,8 t/mio EUR/y). The 2008 values for total phosphorus emission intensity range from 0,47 to 13,03 tons per million EUR GVA per year. Significant decrease in the phosphorus emission intensity (decrease by more than 50%) over the last decade was recorded in nine countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech republic, Germany, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Slovenia). Moreover, Austria, Germany, France, Luxembourg and Portugal, reported (Eurostat) the lowest values of the specific phosphorus balance per hectare comparable to the EU-27 average, being 1 kg of total phosphorus per hectare per year. The impact of subsidies on phosphorus emission intensity (based on 2008 data), was most significant in Norway and Finland, where the increment in emission intensity associated with excluding subsidies accounted for 16,24 and 3,49 t/mio EUR/y respectively , whereas the increment in remaining countries did not exceed 1 t/mio EUR/y. Subsidies: The analysis of subsidies on the output of the agricultural industry for the studied years showed that 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Slovenia and the United Kingdom) reduced the proportion of subsidies in relation to the GVA of their agricultural sector between 2000 and 2008. On the other hand, 5 countries (Czech Republic, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia) increased this proportion during the same period. Information was incomplete for Bulgaria and Germany, where subsidy levels for years 2000 and 2008 respectively were reported as zero (Eurostat). Noteworthy is the sharp increase in the proportion of subsidies as part of GVA  (being in the range between 12-26 % of GVA) in new Member States like Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia accompanied by the increase of GVA values. And, on the other hand, the significant reductions in old Member States like Denmark, Luxembourg, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Given the multiple factors that affect both the change in sectoral GVA and in nutrient balance, it is complicated to draw direct relationships between these two variables. Some key descriptors which could aid in explaining the behavior of these are the structure of the sector (e.g. farm size, standard gross margins, crop type, stocking rate), the socioeconomic characteristics of the area (e.g. rural population, income and employment levels) and the policy measures in place (e.g. subsidies). However, it must be noted that the specific context of each country could result in varying combinations of the mentioned factors and their aggregate effects.    
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emission intensity of agriculture in Europe
Indicator Assessment chemical/x-pdb Emission intensity of domestic sector in Europe (WREI 002) - Assessment published Feb 2014
Absolute decoupling of nutrient emissions from domestic sector and the population growth over the period of almost two decades (1990-2009) is observed in thirteen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Finland, Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Turkey). The actual extent of decoupling, and the differences in trends among countries, may be partially explained by different levels of numbers of inhabitants connected to tertiary wastewater treatment technologies When making the EU wide comparison of the extend of decoupling of nutrient emissions from population growth, the actual rate of population connected to different types of treatment (elaborated in the CSI 024) should be taken into consideration, and completeness of the data available on population connected to collecting systems without treatment. The status of the implementation of the UWWTD which protects the water environment from the adverse effects of discharges of urban waste water, the level of investment in the water and wastewater management ,as well as the status of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Groundwater Directive may have an impact.   Furthermore household patterns as well as the household income level  affecting the production and composition of waste water should be considered as well. It is assumed that the use of actual data on loads discharged from wastewater treatment plants combined with the load values calculated for population not connected to the waste water treatment would add value to the decoupling indicator, as it would better reflect the real situation..  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emission intensity of domestic sector in Europe
Figure Emission trends of nitrogen oxides (EEA member countries, EU-27 Member States)
The 'with measures' (WM) projections reported by Member States take into account currently implemented and adopted policies and measures. Where countries have instead reported 'business as usual' or 'current legislation' projections, it is assumed for comparison purposes that these are equivalent to a WM projection. The 'with additional measures' projections reported by Member States take into account additional future planned policies and measures but which are not yet implemented.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Emission trends of nitrogen oxides (EEA member countries, EU-27 Member States)
This chart shows past emission trends of nitrogen oxides in the EEA-32 and EU-27 group of countries. In addition - for the EU-27 - the 2010 NECD and 2020 Gothenburg target paths and emission ceilings are shown.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Emission trends of nitrogen oxides (EEA member countries, EU-27 Member States)
This chart shows past emission trends of nitrogen oxides in the EEA-32 and EU-27 group of countries. In addition - for the EU-27 - the 2010 emission ceiling and aggregated projections reported by Member States are shown.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Emission trends of nitrogen oxides (EEA member countries, EU-27 Member States)
This chart shows past emission trends of nitrogen oxides in the EEA-32 and EU-27 group of countries. In addition - for the EU-27 - the 2010 emission ceiling and aggregated projections reported by Member States are shown.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Figure Emissions by sector of nitrogen oxides - 2008 (EEA member countries)
The contribution made by different sectors to emissions of nitrogen oxides.
Located in Data and maps Maps and graphs
Indicator Assessment Emissions of acidifying substances (CSI 001/APE 007) - Assessment published Dec 2011
Emissions of the acidifying pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur oxides (SO X ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) have decreased significantly in most of the individual EEA member countries between 1990 and 2009. Emissions of SO X have decreased by 76%, NO X by 41% and NH 3 emissions by 26% since 1990. The EU-27 is on track to meet its overall target to reduce emissions of SO X and NH 3 as specified by the EU’s National Emissions Ceiling Directive (NECD). However a number of individual Member States, and the EU as a whole, anticipates missing their NECD 2010 emission ceilings for NO X . Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings for 2010 under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), both Liechtenstein and Norway reported NO X emissions in 2009 that were substantially higher than their respective 2010 ceilings.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emissions of acidifying substances
Indicator Assessment Emissions of acidifying substances (CSI 001/APE 007) - Assessment published Dec 2012
Emissions of the acidifying pollutants, nitrogen oxides (NO X ), sulphur oxides (SO X ) and ammonia (NH 3 ), have decreased significantly in most of the individual EEA member countries between 1990 and 2010. Emissions of SO X have decreased by 75%, NO X by 42% and NH 3 emissions by 28% since 1990 within the EEA-32. Data reported under the NECD indicates that the EU-27 as a whole has met its overall target to reduce emissions of SO X and NH 3 as specified by the EU’s National Emissions Ceiling Directive (NECD). However twelve individual Member States, and the EU as a whole, reported emissions in the 2010 above their NECD 2010 emission ceilings for NO X , although the twelve Member States joining the EU in 2004/7 reported combined emissions below their collective NECD ceiling. Three EU-27 member states also reported 2010 NH 3 emissions above the levels of their NECD ceilings, neither of which are in the group of twelve new EU member states. Of the three non-EU countries having emission ceilings for 2010 under the UNECE/CLRTAP Gothenburg protocol (Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), both Liechtenstein and Norway reported NO X emissions in 2010 that were substantially higher than their respective 2010 ceilings. Liechtenstein also reported 2010 NH 3 emissions above the level of their Gothenburg protocol 2010 ceiling.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Emissions of acidifying substances
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