3.5 Refineries

Page Last modified 20 Apr 2016, 02:33 PM

3.5 Refineries

Overview

Relative to Public Power Plants and Industrial Combustion Plants, Refineries are only responsible for a quite small part of the total European emissions. However individual Refineries can produce emissions nearly as high as the largest Industrial Combustion Plants, e.g. for NOx.

The emissions of boilers within Refineries should have been included into the emission of this source group according the CORINAIR 90 methodology. Some countries however, seemed to have reported boilers in refineries as Industrial Combustion Plants. The top ten for Refineries are nevertheless presented here but one should keep in mind that big Refineries might be missing and could have been included in Industrial Combustion Plants

The countries with the biggest Refineries are Spain, Italy and the Netherlands.

Table 19: The ten largest Refineries in Europe for SO2 NOx and CO2

SO2 CO2 NOx
Country LPS code Emission in tonnes Country LPS code Emission in ktonnes Country LPS code Emission in tonnes
Spain 0086

24 074

Italy 0055

4 045

Spain 0086

7 639

Bulgaria2 BNFH

20 801

Italy 0047

3 117

Netherlands2 NL15

4 991

Netherlands NL15

18 597

Spain 0083

2 351

Slovak Republic BA02

3 920

France 2590

18 203

Spain 0082

1 619

Netherlands NL15

3 861

Slovak Republic BA02

17 795

Netherlands NL15

1 539

Italy 0063

3 660

Spain 0082

14 900

Spain 0086

1 452

Lithuania 009

3 283

Belgium (Fl. region) 12

14 827

France 2590

1 411

Spain 0082

3 105

Greece2 9

14 043

Netherlands1 NL15

1 387

Italy 0055

3 000

Italy2 0055

12 700

France1 1700

1 201

Belgium (Fl. region) 12

2 844

Spain 0089

12 618

Italy 0060

1 180

Bulgaria2 BNFH

2 804

Others  

446 021

Others  

39 020

Others  

81 989

Total Refineries  

634 579

Total Refineries  

58 322

Total Refineries  

121 096

1 emission reported for SNAP 0401

The SO2 emission of the largest Refinery is only about 5% of the emission of the SO2 emission of the largest Public Power Plant and the total SO2 emissions of Refineries correspond only to app. 5% of the total SO2 emissions of Power Plants. This comparison reflects that Power Plants are dominating the emissions compared to Refineries. However on a local scale the situation might be different, as e.g. in the area of Bratislava (Slovakia).

The higher contribution to the totals (percentages) for CO2 in comparison to SO2 and NOx reflect the differences in SO2 and NOx emission factors of Refinery gas/residual oil compared to coal. The former fuel is mainly used by Refineries and the latter in the largest Power Plants.

Comparing the ten largest refineries for CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions it is interesting to note that the three largest CO2 emitting refineries are not among the ten largest SO2 emitting ones (and 2 of the 3 largest CO2 emitting Refineries among the 10 largest ones for NOx). However six out of the top ten CO2 Refineries are also part of the SO2 ranking list the corresponding number for the NOx-ranking list being seven.

SO2

The 218 Refineries are responsible for 0.3 million tonnes of SO2, that is 2% of the European total LPS emission (see table 20 and map 7).

Figure 12: The top 100 SO2 emitting Refineries in Europe

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Table 20: The ten largest SO2 emitting Refineries in Europe

Rank Country LPS
code
Emission
in tonnes
Main fuel Region

1

Spain 0086

24 074

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

2

Bulgaria BNFH

20 801

Not reported BG/Burgas

3

Netherlands NL15

18 597

Refinery gas/residual oil Groot Rijnmond

4

France 2590

18 203

Refinery gas/residual oil Seine Maritime

5

Slovak Republic BA02

17 795

Not reported Bratislava

6

Spain 0082

14 900

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

7

Belgium (Fl. region) 12

14 827

Refinery gas/residual oil Antwerpen (arr)

8

Greece 9

14 043

Not reported Attiki

9

Italy 0055

12 700

Not reported Confidential

10

Spain 0089

12 618

Refinery gas/residual oil Cadiz
  Others  

446 021

   
  Total  

634 579

   

 

>CO2

The 218 Refineries are responsible for 44 million tonnes of CO2, causing 3% of all LPS emissions (see table 21 and map 8).

Figure 13: The top 100 CO2 emitting Refineries in Europe

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Table 21: The ten largest CO2 emitting Refineries in Europe

Rank Country LPS
code
Emission
in tonnes
Main fuel Region

1

Italy 0055

4 045

Refinery gas/residual oil Caltanissetta

2

Italy 0047

3 117

Refinery gas/residual oil Messina

3

Spain 0083

2 351

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

4

Spain 0082

1 619

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

5

Netherlands NL15

1 539

Refinery gas/residual oil Groot Rijnmond

6

Spain 0086

1 452

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

7

France 2590

1 411

Refinery gas/residual oil Seine Maritime

8

Netherlands NL15

1 387

Refinery gas/residual oil Groot Rijnmond

9

France 1700

1 201

Refinery gas/residual oil Bouches du Rhone

10

Italy 0060

1 180

Refinery gas/residual oil Siracusa
  Others  

39 020

   
  Total  

58 322

   

NOx

The 218 Refineries are responsible for 0.08 million tonnes of NOx, contributing 2% to the LPS emission total (see table 22 and map 9).

Figure 14: The top 100 NOx emitting Refineries in Europe

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Table 22: The ten largest NOx emitting Refineries in Europe

Rank Country LPS
code
Emission
in tonnes
Main fuel Region

1

Spain 0086

7 639

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

2

Netherlands NL15

4 991

Refinery gas/residual oil Groot Rijnmond

3

Slovak Republic BA02

3 920

Not reported Bratislava

4

Netherlands NL15

3 861

Refinery gas/residual oil Groot Rijnmond

5

Italy 0063

3 660

Refinery gas/residual oil Cagliari

6

Lithuania 009

3 283

Not reported Siauliai Region

7

Spain 0082

3 105

Refinery gas/residual oil Confidential

8

Italy 0055

3 000

Refinery gas/residual oil Caltanissetta

9

Belgium (Fl. region) 12

2 844

Refinery gas/residual oil Antwerpen (arr)

10

Bulgaria BNFH

2 804

Not reported BG/Burgas
  Others  

81 989

   
  Total  

121 096

   

Map 7: The ten largest SO2 - emitting Refineries in Europe 1990

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Map 8: The ten largest CO2 - emitting Refineries in Europe

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Map 9: The ten largest NOX - emitting Refineries in Europe 1990

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