2. Methodology

Page Last modified 20 Apr 2016, 02:33 PM

2. Methodology

2.1. General

Legislative requirements (including EEC directive 88/609/EEC, on Large Combustion Plants) and a tendency to more transparent emission data have led to the desire for more information on individual point sources.

CORINAIR 90 provides a lot of information about location, physical characteristics, fuel and abatement technologies for point sources. This data was requested for separate parts and stacks of LPS and for the LPS as a whole (see appendix C for a full list of all LPS related data in the CORINAIR 90 database).

However, not all countries were in a position to supply all requested data. Furthermore, inconsistencies between countries and confidentiality restrictions limits the usefulness of some CORINAIR 90 LPS data.

 

2.2. Definition

The criteria for consideration of a source as a LPS (see table 3) was a minimum requirement for CORINAIR 90. Countries are obliged to include all point sources fulfilling the criteria but were free to include more sources as LPS if data were available.

Table 3: Criteria for Large Point Sources in CORINAIR 90

Source Criteria
Power Plants Thermal capacity > 300MW
Refineries All plants
Sulphuric Acid Production All plants
Nitric Acid Production All plants
Iron and Steel Plants > 3x106 tonnes per year
Production of Paper Pulp > 106 tonnes per year
Vehicle Painting Units > 106 vehicles per year
Airports > 106 LTO cycles per year
Any Activity > 103 tonnes of SO2, NOx or NMVOC or
> 3x106 tonnes CO2 per year

The criteria mentioned in table 3 have been extended by most countries. This has been done e.g. to follow the EEC directive 88/609/EEC which considers „Large Combustion Installations" with a nominal thermal capacity of more than 50MW. The inclusion of these point sources avoided the duplication of efforts.

One of the improvements of CORINAIR 94 includes extended LPS criteria (see ‘Recommendations for Revised Data System for Air Emission Inventories’, EEA 1995).


2.3. Confidentiality

The very detailed information on large point sources is often restricted by confidentiality concerns on the part of the authority submitting information to CORINAIR 90.

Specifications given in table 4 could be labelled as confidential by the counties. Some countries made use of this possibility and restricted this data as confidential and to be used only for completeness and transparency but unavailable for the general public.

Table 4: Specification possibilities for confidential data in CORINAIR 90

Related installation

Confidential data

Stack Height and surface
Exhaust gas parameters
Part Description of process and thermal equipment
Working time per year
Control device Name of control device
control efficiency

In addition to these database inherited confidentiality restrictions some countries specified restrictions on information of a more general nature.

  • Austria: source data, operations, activity data, emission data for individual large point sources (LPS)
  • Czech Republic: location (co-ordinates), source data, activity data of all LPS
  • France: source data, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Greece: source data, operations, activity data, emissions of refineries
  • Hungary: source data for all LPS
  • Italy: activity data for all LPS
  • Netherlands: source data, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Norway: source data, operations, activity data for sources of SNAP groups 3 and 4 (industrial combustion and production processes)
  • Poland: location, source data, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Portugal: location, source data, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Slovakia: source data, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Spain: loactions, operations, activity data for all LPS
  • Sweden: LPS data are all accessible but there are restrictions on area source activities / emission factors
  • Lithuania, Romania, Belgium Wallonie, Denmark, Germany, Finland, Switzerland and the United Kingdom did not place any restrictions on the data submitted.

The use of data specified as confidential is restricted. It is not permitted for the EEA or the ETC/AEM to publish such data or to make it available to third parties. It is only possible to use these data for quality control checks and to present these data as part of summaries, maps and other presentations which do not compromise their confidentiality.

 

2.4. Data structure

In the CORINAIR 90 inventory every LPS can have one or more parts and stacks (see figure 2). Each part can belong to different SNAP activities, but the LPS is then assigned to just one activity.

Figure 2: CORINAIR 90 methodology example for one LPS (3 PARTS, 2 STACKS)

The CORINAIR 90 data structure provides site information about location for each LPS, thermal capacity and an indication whether this plant is covered by the LCP directive (see appendix C for a full list).

Information on LPS parts include the SNAP activity, activity rates, annual operational time, fuel consumption, emission, emission rates and the source sector assigned to each part.

Information on stacks includes physical characteristics of the stacks such as height and area of the stack and flow rate and temperature of the exhaust gases.

The countries taking part in the CORINAIR 90 exercise reported a total of 2124 LPS, 5100 PARTS and 4765 STACKS (see table 5).

Table 5 shows that all countries reported data about LPS, LPS-PARTS and LPS-STACKS as part of the CORINAIR90 project and the LPS-data are consistent in so far as the larger countries reported more LPS data compared to smaller countries. The information provided for LPS-PARTS and LPS-STACKS may not be as consistent. E.g. the Netherlands are by far the country with the largest number of LPS-PARTS and LPS-STACKS in Europe according to their inventory whereas no data about LPS-STACKS were reported by Germany.

Table 5: Reported number of installations for LPS, LPS_PARTS and LPS_STACKS

Country

LPS

LPS  PARTS

LPS  STACKS

1

Austria

39

66

65

2

Belgium - Flemish region

29

67

62

3

Belgium - Wallonie region

67

139

72

4

Bulgaria

34

64

68

5

Czech Republic

50

130

74

6

Denmark

21

63

30

7

Estonia

14

42

34

8

Finland

62

204

170

9

France

382

689

565

10

Germany (former West)

345

345

NR

11

Germany (former East)

199

199

NR

12

Greece

18

25

37

13

Hungary

47

258

158

14

Ireland

14

26

32

15

Italy

106

415

496

16

Latvia

2

15

4

17

Lithuania

18

56

57

18

Luxembourg

1

2

2

19

Malta

1

3

2

20

Netherlands

86

789

1551

21

Norway

24

61

32

22

Poland

163

348

554

23

Portugal

29

77

28

24

Romania

57

90

NR

25

Slovakia

45

123

72

26

Slovenia

7

27

25

27

Spain

97

541

359

28

Sweden

76

131

153

29

Switzerland

10

25

9

30

United Kingdom

81

80

54

Sum

2124

5100

4765

NR ... not reported

 

2.4.1. Thermal capacity

Most point sources are reported as Public Power Plants ,the ones with a capacity over 300MW representing by far the highest thermal capacity (see table 6). The thermal capacities of Refineries and Industrial Chemical Industries have not been given by many countries and are therefore not included in this table.

Table 6: Reported number of installations and thermal capacity of LPS

Source sector

Number of LPS

Number of
LPS parts

Thermal
capacity
in MW

Public Power Plants >300MW

478

855

681 398

Industrial Combustion Plants >300MW

212

355

159 314

Refineries

219

567

-

Industrial Chemical Industries

184

439

-

Other

1 031

2 884

144 808

Sum

2 124

5 100

985 520

As mentioned before, many countries did report also for plants with a thermal capacity between 50 and 300MW. The corresponding figures are shown in table 7. (The LPS have been included under „other" in table 6)

Table 7: Reported number of installations and thermal capacity for small LPS

Source sector

Number of LPS

Number of
LPS parts

Thermal capacity
in MW

Public Power Plants 50-300MW

104

142

20 468

Industrial Combustion Plants 50-300MW

399

601

70 727

 

2.4.2 LCP Directive data

The twelve countries of the European Union (1990) reported 932 point sources as being covered by the LCP Directive. It is to be noticed that not all LCPs are defined as LPS in the CORINAIR 90 database. It is estimated that there are approx. 1300 LCP for EU-12.

 

2.4.3 Fuel consumption

In the CORINAIR 90 inventory every country was free to specify individual fuels, but these fuels had to be allocated to a NAPFUE code as defined in CORINAIR 90 (see appendix D).

Table 8 and figure 3 show the fuel consumption of large point sources for solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Since some countries did not deliver fuel-related data for their LPS it is not possible to present a summary table for the total European fuel consumption in energy units.

Table 8: Fuel consumption reported for CORINAIR 90

Source sector

Fuel consumption in PJ

Public Power Plants >300MW  

6 682

  GASEOUS FUELS

679

  LIQUID FUELS

1 485

  SOLID FUELS

4 518

Industrial Combustion Plants >300MW  

1 037

  GASEOUS FUELS

359

  LIQUID FUELS

350

  SOLID FUELS

328

Refineries  

978

  GASEOUS FUELS

500

  LIQUID FUELS

440

  SOLID FUELS

38

Other1  

2 995

  GASEOUS FUELS

1 134

  LIQUID FUELS

376

  SOLID FUELS

1 485

Total  

11 692

  GASEOUS FUELS

2 672

  LIQUID FUELS

2 651

  SOLID FUELS

6 369

1... Inorganic Chemical Industries are included here

Solid fuels are dominating the picture for the large point source total. The biggest fraction was reported for Public Power Plants, with progressively smaller amounts of the total being reported, respectively by Industrial Combustion Plants and Refineries (see figure 3).Liquid fuel was used by Refineries to almost 50% share, followed by Industrial Plants and Public Power Plants with a share of approx. 30%.

Figure 3: Fuel consumption in percentage reported for CORINAIR 90

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2.4.4. Other information about LPS in CORINAIR 90

Many other details covering data like Starting Year, Year Working Time, Abatement Technology, Fuel Definition and Stack Characteristics have been provided by national experts (see Appendix C). This data is especially interesting for computer simulation of emission scenarios and is available on request (within the specified confidentiality restrictions) for those involved in this area but will not be presented in this report.


2.5 Verification

The CORINAIR 90 data has been examined by the EEA, ETC/AEM and expert panels of the EMEP Task Force on Emission Inventories to assess its quality, completeness and consistency.

The studies focused on several aspects, for example:

  • completeness and consistency (e.g. regarding LPS)
  • comparison with internationally available statistics
  • comparison of data on activity rates and emission factors from independent sources

The results of these studies will be reported back to national experts to help improve the quality of further inventories.

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