3. Progress in 1996
3.1. Assistance to National Reference Centres
The major part of the ETC mission within this project was and, still remains, "Support to national experts". An important step forward was the establishment of a group of technical advisors from the ETC. They are guiding experts in the countries involved (EEA MS and beyond). The procedure established through the ETC co-ordination strategy was appreciated and seems to be widely recognised by the countries involved, NFPs and their NRCs. ETC advisors continue to provide direct assistance, training and ad hoc advice to the EEA member states (18) and in a much more limited way to other countries (4). Initial contacts have been established with experts from the PHARE countries (13). Important progress has been made in guiding experts from the countries involved. At the Launch Seminar held at EEA in June 1996 the ETC/AE handed over the revised software and the accompanying technical documents to the PHARE experts while EEA member states had already received these in January 1996. These tools enable them to prepare their national inventories using the CORINAIR94 methodology and the first edition of the joint EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook.
Another important part of the ETC mission is to maintain and develop ETC/AE co-operation within EIONET. NFPs/NRCs/National Experts have been regularly informed about progress of the ETC work. ETC/AE produced two Newsletters and distributed them within EIONET. It also requested relevant data and information from national networks. The ETC is considering establishing a technical working group on data exchange in the near future. The air emissions aspect of this service needs to be developed further under national responsibility. Through the technical assistance, ETC advisors have corresponded regularly with national experts in order to obtain timely, quantitative and comparable data from the MS.
3.2. Project SA2 - Air Emissions Inventories 1990 and 1994/95
3.2.1. Emissions Inventories
Under the 1995 subvention, the ETC reviewed the CORINAIR85 and 90 process as a whole, the software in use as well as its methodology and guidelines. Several proposals and recommendations were made to revise and speed up the system. The inventorying procedure was adjusted in order to satisfy the clients and the user requirement for timely data and information. Progress with the system to be applied was laid down in the Annual Report 1995. The work continues under the 1996/97 subventions.
Due to the direct assistance as described above and the co-operation from participating countries, air emission estimates for the year 1994 have been produced and delivered. A preliminary database for CORINAIR94 was compiled by the ETC in July 1996 and delivered to the EEA. In 1996, an Internet (http://www.aeat.co.uk/netcen/corinair/94/index.html) webpage was created. Now the emission estimates for 1990 and 1994 at SNAP level1 can be derived electronically via Internet from the ETC/AE homepage at AEA Technology which is linked to the EEA homepage. Estimates at SNAP level 2 on Internet are in progress.
Emissions estimates for 1994 at SNAP level 1 and 2 have been delivered by almost all countries involved, while missing data at level 3 is still being compiled. The CORINAIR94 summary report no 1 (first draft) was produced in December 1996. The final draft was compiled in January 1997 and sent to the NFPs and EIONET for review and included in the accompanying table.
Table 1.1: National total emissions 1994
Legend: Emission Status
A emission estimates on SNAP level 3 (fully detailed)
B emission estimates on SNAP level 2 (detailed)
C emission estimates on SNAP level 1 (main source sectors)
- not available
The ETC has been requested to update CORINAIR90 figures with MS in order to be compatible with CORINAIR94 classification and methods. This is a necessary exercise that will provide the basis for the compilation of consistent series of emissions estimates for 1990 to 1995/96 requested by the Agency and required under various reporting obligations. In collaboration with experts from EMEP the compilation is underway.
While emissions data for 1990 including background information were stored in an ORACLE database, air emissions estimates for subsequent years are being stored in an Access database. Emissions data has been used for inclusion in the joint AQ/AE Air Pollution Report and it will be used for inclusion in the Dobris+3 report. Both reports will be fed into the SoE report due in late 1998.
Based upon the Topic Report Recommendation for a revised data system" (1996) the main changes in the model and the software were tested and implemented in 1995. Further improvements such as output modules for reporting and adjustment of the nomenclature have been made in early 1996. The modules produce data reports required by customers and clients such as UNECE/EMEP, IPCC, DGXI, OSPARCOM/ HELCOM etc.
The ETC furthermore has delivered a beta version of COPERT II (version0.6), the software tool for estimation of emissions of road transport and off-road transportation, which was tested by other ETC partners. After comparison with the DRIVE-Modem and the Graz DGV model, emissions factors for passenger cars have been updated. Version 0.6 introduced new tools, which will also be incorporated in the final version. The software evolution was finalised by launching the beta version end of December 1996. The beta version was designed to be used as the full test version, before launching the final one. It was provided with a custom Windows help file and was distributed to National Experts. The export to the CORINAIR software was completed with inclusion of factors for heavy metals emissions estimates. A full set of CORINAIR/COPERT average representative emission factors was prepared to be incorporated in the revision of the IPCC guidelines. Methodological aspects mainly of SNAP source sector 8 are being reviewed in collaboration with the UNECE Task Force on Emission Inventories, expert panel on transport.
Figure 1. Example of input window of COPERT II
Supplementary work has been performed by the ETC/AE under the supervision of the EEA to prepare a report on National Emission Inventories 1994/1995 for the Monitoring Mechanism of Community CO2 and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Commission (DGXI). The report was drafted in December 1996 and presented at the EU meeting of the Monitoring Mechanism Committee on 20th of January 1997 in Brussels. The report supplies a consistent and transparent summary of greenhouse gas emissions for 1994 and (preliminary) 1995, updated emissions estimates for 1990 and the trend of emissions based upon the national inventories, supplemented with information from Eurostat and Corinair. In the final draft (January 1997) the ETC/AE will include data and information submitted after January 1, 1997 by member states.
3.2.2. Model for Emissions Inventories and Projections
This task aims to design/revise a recognised model and software tool for both the inventory and the projection of emissions to air (water, soil and possibly of generated waste). For Inventories, a revision of the CORINAIR software was made in 1995/96 while the future design of a new database structure and input tools has been developed over the year. The design that applies modern available software has been described and reported to the Agency in late 1996. A full design which must incorporate most of the requirements from our clients needs assistance from a software bureau for which however only a small budget was available in 1996. The design and revision is to be finalised in early 1997. The next steps in the implementation of the new software need to be discussed further.
Below the general data system and an example of a possible window are presented :
Figure 2. CORINAIR data system
Figure 3. Possible window for activities (SNAP) in the revised CORINAIR software
For Projections, the ETC/AE and several other institutes and organisations have assessed the CASPER model on behalf of the EEA and DGXI. The main conclusion summarised in the Agencys evaluation report to DGXI was that this model can be useful for several applications provided that it is extensively calibrated and validated and that a number of improvements are implemented. In addition, the Commission who has funded the development of this model wants to see some results at least incorporated in the further development.
Regarding the design of the new software the ETC has produced technical papers containing needs and requirements to be prioritised. This information has been reported to the Agency in November 1996. As agreed with the EEA the ETC will focus the development of the new model on separate tools for inventories and for projections, which should be however be linked in a logical way. The work is being continued in order to focus on a model which can lead to a recognised national and European standard.
The UNECE (LRTAP Convention) Task Force on Emissions Inventories (TFEI), expert panel on Projections and Verifications led by the EEA is organising a meeting to be held in March 1997. It aims to link the activities undertaken by the TF on Integrated Assessment Modelling and the TFEI expert panel. The main objective of the meeting is to gather information on the current use of emissions projections and to discuss draft guidelines for projections which participating parties to the UNECE/LRTAP Convention countries should prepare. The basic elements of projection models and common areas of joint efforts need to be identified, the revised guidelines for projection will be reviewed and the developed workplan discussed.
This meeting will provide important results to be used by the ETC for the future development of the model(s) for emission inventories and projections.
3.2.3. Urban Emissions Inventories
The work on this task began in 1995 with a review of urban/local air emissions activities in the EC, ECEH/WHO, ETC/AQ and other bodies. A contents proposal for an urban air emissions report was drafted early 1996. After a meeting with ETC/AQ, the ETC/AE (ENEA, TNO) in close collaboration with ETC/AQ decided to :
identify databases of cities available and how to access these;
incorporate best available statistical data (e.g. country area, population, geographical location/co-ordinates, etc.) already produced by EUROSTAT and elsewhere;
determine needs in order to serve potential users such as ETC/AQ for feeding air quality models;
prepare a top-down approach for urban inventories using CORINAIR90 estimates at SNAP level 3 on regional scale (NUTS 3) and using point source emissions estimates;
develop guidelines for urban/regional air emission inventories;
produce an overview of existing inventories.
This activity continues in very close collaboration with the ETC/AQ. The Topic Report Review study on European urban emission inventories" (1996) finalised in September was widely disseminated by the Agency for expert review and comment. In December the top-down urban inventory of area sources (database of EU15 cities) was produced. It has been reviewed and sent to the ETC/AQ, to be used for preparing source-receptor relationships (using simple dispersion models and air quality measurement data). A database of Large Point Source emissions estimates is being prepared. The final step will be to decide how urban emissions inventories can be extended to include fine particulates (PM10 ) and benzene. There is no consistent emissions data set for urban areas available at a European level. In a recent study (RIVM/TNO, Netherlands, to be finalised) particulates emissions in European countries have been estimated, and could be converted into the common CORINAIR format. It is expected that the result will be seen as a major step forward to support assessment studies within the framework of EU Air Quality Directives. Further development and validation of a procedure which is to be applied to compile such data and background information from the countries, and the verification of existing emission factors would facilitate the inclusion of the two compounds in the CORINAIR system and the joint EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook.
3.2.4. Preparation for Assessment Reports
Guidance report Air Quality Directives
The ETC is committed to providing support to the Agency in compiling assessment reports. The ETC was asked to contribute to a Guidance Report (prepared by ETC/AQ, JRC and the Commission), for supplementary assessments in support of Air Quality Directives under the forthcoming Council Directive on Air Quality Assessment and Management. The ETC/AE has delivered a chapter on Human activity and emissions inventories". The primary objective of the guidance report is to produce emissions maps for all zones and agglomerations where monitoring stations provide measurements of the level of pollutants. This information will be mapped and will contain comprehensive information on emissions and emission fluxes in the entire zone, which will enable a first estimate of places at risk of exceeding limit and values. The maps will also provide information needed to run simple models for calculation of the concentration of air pollutants as described in chapter 5 of the guidance document. In this case, the specifications of the emission inventory should be determined by the input requirements of the model and hence, indirectly, by the chemical, spatial and temporal resolutions of the air quality quantities (concentrations) as specified in the Directives.
In principle, calculation of peak concentrations (both in space and in time), requires emission inventories containing very high space and time resolution; however, in a number of cases, these peak concentrations may be assessed on the basis of more aggregated emissions information using statistical information on the time variation of the emissions, while the emission factor methodology allows to compile emission estimates for individual sources, streets and other areas where high concentrations are expected. For secondary pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphate or nitrate particulates, more complex models are needed requiring data on emissions of so-called precursors, from which the pollutant is formed by chemical conversion.
To ensure comparability of the data and
the subsequent assessment, it was necessarily recommended to use a standard methodology,
harmonised at the European level. Such a methodology has been developed and applied in the
CORINAIR project and documented in the EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric Emission Inventory
Guidebook. Within this project a complete, consistent and transparent emissions
databases for all of the European territory for the base years 1990 and 1994 are
available. If no specific emission inventory for the zone under study is available such an
inventory should be derived from the most recent CORINAIR inventory available, using the
methodology described in the chapter on emissions. It was recommended to use the CORINAIR
database directly to calculate background concentrations, resulting from emissions outside
the region under study.
Report "Air Pollution in Europe" (jointly with ETC/AQ)
The ETC/AE is also involved in the preparation of the report on Air Pollution in Europe 1997. This report will be published as a key EEA Topic Report in June 1997. It will focus on key environmental indicators and is addressed to a broad audience and the general public. At the first meeting in November 1996, ETC/AE, ETC/AQ and EEA discussed contents, organisation and responsibilities, time schedule and layout / printing. The report will be based on up-to-date information and data. Mainly collected directly by the two ETCs on issues as follows:
Acidification and Eutrophication
Specific urban NO2 and Ozone
The ETC/AE contribution is underway, consistent figures, maps and graphs are being prepared. The first draft will be finalised by end of January 1997 while the final version is due by April 1997. The work to be completed will also be used as input to the Agencys two major reports, the Dobris+3 and the EU SoE98.
Contribution to the Dobris +3 report
The aim, scope and objective of the Dobris+3 report have been discussed at several meetings within the NFP/EIONET group and beyond. It was stated that the ETCs will provide most of the inputs. The ETC/AE has commented on the report contents proposals and received additional funding from the Agency to prepare the chapter on climate change.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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