3.4.1. ECE-EMEP

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3.4. International monitoring programmes, individual description

3.4.1. ECE-EMEP

As stated in Section 2.2.1, the purpose of the EMEP monitoring network is to provide a basis for control of the EMEP model to calculate transboundary fluxes, and not to provide sufficient monitoring data to map fully the gradients in regional air pollution in Europe. The EMEP network includes (1995) 126 monitoring stations in 28 countries. The monitoring programme (1995) is shown in Table 3.6. and Table 3.7. Table 3.3 summarises the regional air pollution monitoring network in each country. In most countries, the EMEP network is only a part of this total regional network.

An evaluation of the EMEP network relative to its objective has been performed (ECE, 1994). According to this evaluation, there are some shortcomings in the spatial coverage:

S and N compounds:
The spatial coverage is considered insufficient in a number of areas of typical dimension 200-600 km (diameter) in various parts of Eastern, Western and Southern Europe. In addition, the whole area east of the 30° E longitude is considered insufficiently covered.

Ozone:
EMEP ozone sites are lacking completely in much of Southern Europe, and east of the 30° E longitude. A number of new sites are recommended in those areas.

This evaluation concerns the sites reporting to EMEP which is to form a basis for model comparison. The total regional coverage is better when the other national sites are also considered. Still, however, the spatial coverage of regional monitoring is insufficient especially in parts of Southern, and most of Eastern Europe.

Table 3.6: Coverage of EMEP programme in participating countries.

Party

Complete EMEP programme

Precipitation programme complete

Air programme complete

Air programme except O3

NO2
sites

O3
sites

NO3, HNO3, NH4, NH3
sites

Number of
sites
31/12 - 95

Party

Austria

0

3

0

0

0

3

0

3

Austria

Belarus

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Belarus

Belgium

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Belgium

Bosnia-Herzegovina

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bulgaria

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bulgaria

Croatia

0

2

0

0

2

0

0

2

Croatia

Czech Rep.

2

2

2

0

2

2

2

2

Czech Rep.

Denmark

0

0

0

1

1

2

3

5

Denmark

Estonia

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Estonia

Finland

4

4

4

0

4

4

4

4

Finland

France

0

7

0

0

0

0

0

7

France

Germany

0

8

0

0

8

15

0

17

Germany

Greece

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

Greece

Hungary

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

Hungary

Iceland

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

Iceland

Ireland

0

2

0

0

1

1

0

3

Ireland

Italy

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

Italy

Latvia

0

0

1

0

2

1

1

2

Latvia

Lithuania

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

Lithuania

Macedonia, F. Yugoslav Rep. of

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Macedonia, F. Yugoslav Rep. of

Moldova, Rep. of

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Moldova, Rep. of

Netherlands

0

1

0

0

2

3

0

3

Netherlands

Norway

5

6

5

1

7

11

7

12

Norway

Poland

0

2

4

0

4

4

4

4

Poland

Portugal

0

3

0

0

0

1

0

4

Portugal

Romania

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Romania

Russian Federation

0

4

0

0

4

0

0

4

Russian Federation

Slovak Rep.

0

4

0

0

4

3

0

4

Slovak Rep.

Slovenia

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

3

Slovenia

Spain

5

5

5

0

5

5

5

5

Spain

Sweden

3

4

3

1

6

6

5

8

Sweden

Switzerland

1

1

1

0

5

5

1

6

Switzerland

Turkey

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

Turkey

Ukraine

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ukraine

United Kingdom

2

5

2

0

0

16

2

19

United Kingdom

Yugoslavia

0

2

0

0

2

0

0

2

Yugoslavia

CEC

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

CEC

Number of sites

24

69

29

4

64

89

37

126

Number of sites

 

Table 3.7: EMEP’s measurement programme 1995–1998.

 

Components

Measurement period

Measurement frequency

Gases SO2, NO2, HNO3, NH3
O3

Volatile organic compounds:*
Light hydrocarbons C2–C7,
ketones and aldehydes
Hg**

24 hours
1 hour averages stored


10–15 minutes
8 hours
To be decided

Daily
Continuously


Twice weekly
Twice weekly
To be decided

Particles SO42-, NO3-, NH4+
Trace metals**
24 hours
To be decided
Daily
To be decided
Gases + particles HNO3 + NO3-
NH3 + NH4+ (separate measurements preferred)
Persistent organic compounds**
24 hours
24 hours
To be decided
Daily
Daily
To be decided
Precipitation Amount, pH/H+, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, conductivity
Trace metals**
Persistent organic compounds**
24 hours

To be decided
To be decided
Daily

To be decided
To be decided

* At a limited number of sites only.

** Trace metals and persistent organic compounds (POP) are not yet included in the programme.

Fig-3-1.gif (11819 bytes)

Figure 3.1: Location of EMEP stations (per 31.12.1995).
(Ozone sites not included).

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