3.3. Summary of international monitoring programmes in Europe

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Summary of international monitoring programmes in Europe

The international monitoring programmes listed in Chapter 2.2 are described in Chapter 3.4 below. Table 3.4 gives a summary of the monitoring activities in these programmes.

Except for GEMS/AIR, which involves urban pollution, these programmes exclusively deal with regional and global air pollution problems. A large number of stations are involved in these programmes. Many of the stations are in operation under several of the programmes in parallel.

The compounds include S- and N-compounds, ozone, metals, and other trace gases. Table 3.5 shows which compounds are covered by which programmes.

Table 3.4: Summary of recent monitoring activities in Europe in international programmes.
For all programmes: Not all compounds are measured at all sites.

Programme

Sites

Countries

Compounds (summary)

EMEP (1995)

126

28

S- and N-compounds in air (gases and particles) and precipitation, and O3 and VOC in air.

OSPAR (1994)

     

Precip.

25

10

Cd, Hg, NO3, NH4, (priority)
As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, organo-halogens (grey list)

Aerosol/gas

12

6

Cd, Hg, a-HCN, g-HCN, HNO3, NO3, NO2, NO, NH3, NH4 (priority)
As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn (grey list)

HELCOM

31

8

N compounds in air (gases and particles), and in precipitation.
Metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in airborne particles and in precipitation.
Cr, Ni, As, Hg in precipitation.

MEDPOL

13

10

Emphasis on heavy metals in aerosol, and heavy metals and major ions in precipitation.

GAW

61

23

Precipitation chemistry.
 

100

29

"Trace gases": O3 (81), NOx (43), SO2 (34), CO2 (20), CH4 (7), N2O (3), CFCs (4).
 

42

19

Aerosols
 

16

5

Radiation
 

14

10

Turbidity

TOR (1994)

29

  O3, NO, NO2, NOy, CH4, CO, NMHC, JNO2, met.data.

GEMS/AIR (1993/94)

9

9

SO2, SPM

 

Table 3.5: Compound coverage in the international monitoring programmes.

 

EMEP

OSPAR

HELCOM

MEDPOL

GAW

TOR

GEMS/AIR

S compounds

air
precip.

   

precip.

SO2
precip.

 

air (SO2)

N compounds

air
precip.

air

air
precip.

precip

NOx, N2O
precip.

air

 

Metals

 

air
precip

air
precip.

aerosol
precip.

     

Ozone

x

     

x

x

 

Organo-halogens

 

x

         

CO2

       

x

   

CO

         

x

 

CH4

       

x

x

 

VOC

x

       

x

 

CFC

       

x

   

"Aerosols",
radiation,
turbidity

       


x

 

TSP

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