3.2. Country-wise brief summaries
3.2. Country-wise brief summaries
The network and coverage (compounds, spatial, temporal) in each country are briefly summarised in this chapter. Also, shortcomings/gaps (when obvious from the collected information, when it is considered complete) and near-future trends (when information is given) are described.
Only a general summary regarding methods evaluation, data availability and reporting and network description is given immediately below.
Methods evaluation: Standard, generally accepted methods, samplers and monitors are used almost exclusively in most networks. These are methods as described e.g. in EU directives, or equivalent. Some countries in eastern Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Romania) use to some extent non-standard methods which are not necessary equivalent to methods as described in the directives. Some countries uses advanced methods routinely at some sites, such as DOAS in Finland, Norway and Sweden, and on-line compound-specific VOC analysis in the UK.
Specific information on QA/QC procedures were in general not made available as part of this project.
Data availability: Specific information is missing for many countries, as shown in the Tables 3.2 and 3.3. Non-validated monitor data is, to our knowledge, available at a central data base for one or more networks in the following countries: Austria, Denmark, the Netherlands, UK, Norway, Cyprus.
Validated data are in general available after 1-3 months after measurement, but some countries need longer time, especially for data from manual samplers and for precipitation data.
U.K. has recently made the data from the automatic monitor programme available on-line on Internet. The preliminary data are updated with quality controlled data regularly, after a delay of 2-3 months.
Reporting: The time delay before reports are available varies substantially. Ozone represents a special case. For EU countries, the ozone directive requires that ozone is reported in principle to the public every day.
For local air quality, annual reports are available 4-12 months after the year, depending upon country (see Table 3.2). Some countries or networks issue monthly reports after a much shorter time delay. The reports are written in the national language, but some countries issue summary reports in English as well (e.g. Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia).
Network description: Detailed site description is an important background for evaluating representativity of networks and for judging the air quality information from the network correctly. Dedicated reports with detailed site descriptions were available to us from Austria, the Netherlands and Spain. For some other countries, brief descriptions were available within the AQ reports, such as for Sweden, the UK.
EU MEMBER STATES
The information available to us on air quality monitoring networks is fairly complete.
9 provincial networks are operated, mainly in urban/hot-spot locations, a total of 237 sites. All site categories are well covered. Most cities and larger towns (10) are covered. The national UBA network operates 8 regional sites. In addition, some local industrial networks exist. There is a smog warning system operated in the Vienna, Linz and Graz areas. A large part of the sites are equipped with monitors.
Substantial spatial coverage, with e.g. 135 O3 sites and about 150-200 sites for SO2, NOx, SPM. Acid deposition at 3 (EMEP) sites. CSD compounds (except Pb) and CO are well covered. VOC and H2S is measured at some sites.
For urban/hot spot networks: Province-wise. Available after 3 weeks of new year
For regional UBA sites: National report. Available after 1 month of new year
In the course of setting up a monitoring concept for the future Air Quality Protection Act, a review of the currently run monitoring networks is performed that will result in a reduction of monitoring sites for CO, and to a minor extent of SO2, NO2 and SPM, and a relocation of several sites in order to achieve a more homogenous spatial coverage; additionally a monitoring network for lead and benzene is being built up.
The only information available to us on air quality monitoring networks was from the WHO questionnaire. It is not complete.
There are 3 networks in operation ("automatic", sulphur-smoke, heavy metal), covering all 3 states (Brussels, Flanders, Wallonia). The networks have both urban, hot-spot and regional sites. There are a total of 193 sites. The networks cover 60 cities/towns and 13 industrial areas. Most sites are equipped with monitors. All site categories are well covered.
Coverage: Substantial spatial coverage for SO2 and TSP (155/108 sites), and 23 NO2 sites and 10 O3 sites. CSD compounds well covered. VOC and CO is measured at some (local) sites.
Available information is fairly complete, through returned MA1-2 questionnaire, and annual reports.
There are 3 networks in operation (National Urban Area Program (LMP), Copenhagen network, Background network). There are 18 urban/hot-spot sites in 3 cities and 17 background sites (5 EMEP). All site classes are represented. Most sites are equipped with monitors for gases, and manual samplers for SPM.
Spatially, the coverage may be complete enough to cover all areas with air quality problems. There are 6 regional SO2 sites and 3 regional O3 monitoring sites.
Monitor data are available in near real time, from NERI.
Annual reports are available after 10 months in new year.
Available information is rather complete through a completely filled-out MA1-2 questionnaire, and additional reports.
A regional network with 22 sites is divided into 6 subprogrammes (National, special, EGAP, EMEP, GAW, IM). The urban air quality monitoring system consists of 31 local networks (2 of them are private industrial networks), and consists of 117 sites in 30 cities/areas. Most sites have monitors for gases, and manual samplers for SPM.
Substantial. There are 6 SO2 background sites and 7 O3 background sites.
Quality controlled data are available after 9 months (background data) and 1 month (Helsinki network).
Background network : After 11 months in new year.
After 4 months in new year.
Available info on monitoring networks is fairly complete through an annual AQ data report copy (1992/93) from ADEME. Specific info on methods and data availability is lacking.
The French AQ monitoring system consists of 29 regional networks, and some local, private industrial pollution networks. The regional networks are now linked to the Environmental Agency (ADEME) in Paris. There are a total of about 900 sites in operation, among them (approximate numbers) 380 for SO2, 235 for NOx, 107 for O3, 68 for VOC, 86 for CO and 93 for SPM. About 95% of the total no. of sites are urban town/hot-spot sites, the rest are regional. Most sites are equipped with monitors for gases. 7 EMEP sites.
Substantial. There are 21 regional O3 sites, and 4 O3 precursor sites.
Near-real-time, for stations coupled to the ADEME network.
Annual report covering all networks available 6-12 months after new year.
After all regional networks have been connected to ADEME, data will be available in near-real-time.
Available info on networks is fairly complete through a returned MA 1-2 questionnaire, a report "Guide to Air Pollution Monitoring Networks in EU (1990), German States", and annual reports from the "Länder".
There are 16 Federal State networks in Germany, with a total of about 550 sites, both urban, hot-spot and regional. A Federal (UBA) network runs 31 rural/regional sites, of which 17 are EMEP sites. At most sites, gases are measured with monitors, and SPM with automatic and/or manual samplers.
Quality controlled air data from UBA network and other networks are available 1-2 months after sampling, and precipitation data 6 months after sampling.
Monthly reports from all networks are available typically after 1-2 months and annual reports after 2-12 months in the new year.
Information is only available from MA 1-2 questionnaire. More details are needed.
The national AQ monitoring network consists of 31 urban sites in 11 cities (incl. 11 sites in Athens-Attica and 5 in Thessaloniki), and one regional site. At all sites, gases are measured by monitors, and (most) SPM by manual samplers.
The urban network probably covers most areas with air pollution problems. There is only one regional background site (also EMEP site). There are no regional O3 sites.
QC data are available after 1-2 months.
Available after 4 months in new year.
Regional O3 (and O3 precursor) sites are not established.
Available information is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire, and from the "Guide to Air Pollution Monitoring Networks in the European Union (1990), Ireland". Info on data availability and reporting are missing.
20 local networks with a total of 88 sites are operated in 15 cities/counties. Of them, 6 sites are rural/regional (3 EMEP). In addition, there is a national O3 network with 5 sites. This network, and the local Dublin network is part of a public information and alert system. Except for ozone, the sites are mainly equipped with manual (SO2/BS) samplers.
The SO2/BS and ozone coverage is substantial. CO and VOC is not measured.
The available information has been extracted from various tables of stations and data provided by the Ministry of Environment. The available information was considerably less complete than from many of the other countries.
From this, there is a list of 129 sites in 41 cities/areas, with the following compound coverage:
SO2: 85 sites
NO2: 80 sites
O3: 20 sites
TSP: 89 sites
Pb: 9 sites
CO: 49 sites
There are 3 EMEP sites in Italy.
The Decree on collection of AQ data in Italy requires that cities/industrial areas establish monitoring systems with sites of various categories: urban background, traffic and industrial hot-spots, extra-urban background, regional background.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire. It seems to be fairly complete.
There is a national network with 6 sites, covering 2 urban areas and 2 rural/background sites. In addition, there are 2 industrial sites for dust deposition. Monitors are used, except for one site for SO2/BS.
Seems rather complete. Ozone is measured, and there is a site with ozone precursors.
Quality controlled data available after 2 months.
Annual reports available in February.
The available information is rather complete, through MA 1-2 questionnaire, a site description report and national reports.
The national network includes an urban network with 20 sites in 9 cities, and a regional network with 36 basic sites (3 EMEP, 1 OSPARCOM, 1 TOR site) and 10 additional sites for NH3 and precipitation.
Monitoring is used together with modelling to obtain a more complete air quality assessment.
Substantial, especially when modelling is used in addition.
Monitor data are available in near-real-time. Quality controlled data: after 1.5 months for monitor data, and 3 months after new year for integrated samples.
Smog forecast: Twice a day.
Annual summarising reports: Available in June.
At the moment there are 84 AQ monitoring stations in Portugal which belongs to the following networks:
Private networks associated to large industrial plants. There are 6 networks and the responsible for the measurements are the industries themselves.
Local networks, which are 5, associated to urban and/or industrial areas. These networks are managed by Local Commissions for Air Management (CGAs) which are integrated in the Regional Directorates for Environment and Natural Resources (CGA-Porto in the North Regional Directorate, CGA-Estarreja in Center Regional Directorate, CGA-Lisboa and CGA-Barreiro/Seixal in Lisboa e Vale do Tejo Regional Directorate and CGA-Sines in Alentejo Regional Directorate).
National network, with 15 stations, have been operated since 1986. Some of these stations also belong to the Local Networks. The national institution responsible for this network is the Meteorological Institute (IM).
EMEP network with 5 stations.
BAPMoN network with 8 stations.
Substantial. The existing stations cover the main urban areas (cities of Lisboa, Porto, Coimbra, Setúbal and Faro), the industrial or urban/industrial areas (Barreiro/Seixal, Sines and Estarreja) and the areas within the influence of large plants. However, it is still necessary to have more stations in some of these areas, principally in urban sites to obtain a better coverage. There are also some other places which are not yet covered. For these areas there have been made some campaigns for data collection with a mobile station.
National network: available annually. Some data are published daily in newspapers.
Local network: available annually. By demand data from all networks can be provided after validation within a short delay. After all national stations have been connected to the central node, data will be available in near real time.
Annual reports. No reports published since 1993.
Available info on monitoring networks and sites is from a complete network/site description report for 1992. Info on data availability and reporting is lacking.
There are 80 regional/local networks with a total of 1,070 sites, and a national network of 7 sites (1 reference site, 5 EMEP-BAPMON sites). The networks include 262 NOx sites, 90 O3 sites, 67 VOC sites and 76 meteorological sites.
There is a large number of sites. Traffic and industrial hot-spot sites are well represented (438 and 167 sites resp.). There are totally 187 regional sites.
Available info is from a data report on Urban Air Quality, from 1994.
There is an urban network covering 45 cities/towns (66 sites) operated by local authorities. The national network of regional air and precipitation quality includes 49 sites, of which 8 are EMEP sites. The urban network is equipped partly with monitors and partly with manual samplers (about 50 of each). The urban network includes 20 ozone sites with diffusive (passive) sampling on a monthly basis (6 months per year). EMEP includes 6 ozone sites equipped with monitors. Most of the 35 VOC sites are passive BTEX sampler sites. The others (3) are equipped with DOAS instruments.
Coverage : Substantial spatial coverage, but traffic and industrial hot-spot sites are not well represented (3 traffic sites in Stockholm, and no industrial sites). Temporal coverage: Many urban sites are operated only in the six winter months, and O3 only in the summer months.
Data availability : Monitor data in principle available from the local networks, but no delay time given.
Reporting : Annual reports are prepared by The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL). The urban network report for the winter 1995/96 will be published in September 1996. EMEP 1995 data will be available in the spring 1996. Statistic Sweden yearly reports data from cities, in December from the last winter period.
Shortcomings/gaps : Urban air quality is in general not measured during summer, so annual averages can not be given.
The available information is rather complete, through returned MA 1-2 questionnaire, data reports and other summary documents.
Air quality is monitored through national networks, of which there are 9 at present. The networks are compound/area-type specific, and have in principle a national coverage. Briefly mentioned the networks are (number of sites in brackets): Automatic Urban Network (25), Rural Ozone (15), Automatic VOC (9), Smoke and SO2 (252), NO2 diffusion tube (1,100), Lead etc. (15), Toxic organics (5), Acid dep. (32), Rural SO2 (38). 19 EMEP sites (incl. 16 in the rural O3 programme).
Local and regional pollution models are used to extend the assessment of the air quality.
Substantial, both spatially, temporally and compound-wise. 34 cities are covered, and 4 industrial areas.
Standard/state-of-the-art/advanced (diffusion tubes for NO2, on-line compound-specific VOC monitoring).
Data availability :
Monitor data are available near-real-time (1-2 hours delay) on an Air Quality Bulletin System on Internet form the Department. of Environment.
Acid dep. data: After 3-6 months.
Rural SO2: After 3 months.
The Automated Urban Network is at present being extended substantially. There are plans for an external evaluation of the AQ monitoring programs.
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA COUNTRIES
Available information is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire, and a country report written by the Environment Protection in Iceland.
There are 4 urban sites in 3 cities/areas, and one rural (EMEP) site for S and N compounds in air and deposition (no rural ozone). In Reykjavik, SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10 is monitored. One of the 3 "sites" is in a mobile van. There is a traffic hot-spot site.
Urban hot-spot (traffic, industry) and regional air pollution in Iceland seems to be covered by the present activities.
Available in reports
Rural O3 is not measured.
Information on AQ network is picked up from the 1994 AQ data report for Switzerland.
There is one monitoring station in operation, an urban site in Valdez, with monitors for SO2, NOx, NO2, CO, O3 and TSP (beta-absorption).
The result are reported in the Swiss annual data report.
The available information is complete, through NILUs involvement.
The urban air quality programme is designed to give data on population exposure, through combined use of monitoring and modelling. The urban network presently consists of 6 urban background sites (in as many cities). The regional background air and precipitation quality network consists of 39 sites (12 EMEP sites), of which 11 has monitoring of NO2, 15 has O3, and 11-13 has major ions. Hourly presentation of data to authorities is in operation in two cities (Drammen and Bergen).
The coverage of the regional network is substantial. The urban network is not yet complete. The urban sites measure only NOx, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10. SO2 conc. is very low, except for in some industrial locations. Most of the urban sites are operated only in the six winter months.
From monitors: near-real-time or daily (depending upon site). Quality controlled data: after one month.
From samplers: Quality controlled data: after 2 months.
Background network: Annual, after 10-12 months.
Urban network : Reporting routines are not yet decided.
The urban coverage is lacking. AQ is in general not measured during summer, so annual averages cannot be given.
The urban network will most probably be expanded to more cities/towns. On-line monitoring and information system (AirQUIS), incl. possibility for on-line (hourly) presentation of monitoring and modelling results to the public, is being established in Oslo, and more cities may follow.
Available info is only from the WABOLU/WHO questionnaire. It is not complete.
There is an urban monitoring network covering 11 cities, with a total of 23 sites (3 in Tirana). SO2 and BS is measured at all sites, and in addition NOx and TSP is measured at 3 of them.
The network is operated throughout the year, but only 7-10 days per month. O3 is not measured. There seems to be no regional/background sites.
The available information is only from the WABOLU/WHO questionnaire. It is not complete.
The national network consists of about 100 sites, operated by Min. of health (39), Min. of Environment (55) and Hydro Met. Centre (6). The network covers cities, industrial towns and health resorts. It is unclear whether there are representative regional sites.
The CSD compounds are covered with many sites (60-100), but there are no ozone sites. H2S, and NH3 is measured to a large extent, HCl, CO, Cl2 are also measured at some sites. It is unclear to which extent the regional air quality is covered.
Available info is only from the WABOLU/WHO questionnaire. It is not complete.
There are local/regional networks covering 10 cities/industrial areas/populated regions, with a total of 62 sites. Most sites are urban and industrial, some may be regionally representative. There are manual samplers, no monitors. There are 2 EMEP sites (precipitation and NO2).
SO2, NO2, BS and TSP are covered, but no O3 or lead sites. H2S, NH3, Phenols, PAH and Cl ion is also measured. It is unclear whether there are regionally representative sites.
Standard for BS and TSP. SO2: "Acidimetric method (BSM)". NO2, NH3, H2S, Phenols: Spectrophotometry.
The network is under development, especially as regards regional sites. A central information system is contemplated.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire. It seems fairly complete.
The air quality monitoring includes at present 3 sites, two traffic hot-spot sites in Nicosia, and one regional background site (EMEP/GAW).
Spatial coverage is reasonable. All CSD compounds are covered, incl. PM10 continuously.
From monitors : Near-real-time.
Quality Controlled data:
After 2 months.
Annual reports available after 12 months. Data from background site available quarterly (delay unknown).
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire, and from the Czech AQ report for 1993. Some information is lacking.
There are a number of national, regional and local networks in operation, with a total of about 650 sites. The Automatic Monitoring Network has 74 sites (37 urban, 37 rural) with monitors. The other sites have mainly manual samplers. There is a Special Monitoring Network for TSP and metals (14 sites, 11 rural, 3 urban). The networks cover in principle the whole territory. There are 2 EMEP stations.
The spatial coverage is substantial. The CSD compounds are covered on very many sites, incl. 40 O3 sites. CO is measured at 46 sites, and PM10 is also measured (at 3 sites). The entire network is operated the whole year.
Quality controlled data are available from the Air Quality Information System at the Hydromet. Inst. after 3 months. Precipitation data are available after 2 months.
Annual report available 4 months after new year.
Available info is from some material received from the Estonian Environmental Research Laboratory. Some information is lacking.
The monitoring network includes an urban network with 16 sites in 9 urban areas (3 in Tallin), and 2 background (EMEP) sites.
SO2, NO2 and TSP coverage is substantial. There are 3 O3 sites (2 background and 1 urban), and 6 CO sites. H2S, Formaldehyde, Phenols and NH3 are measured at several sites, and BTX at 1 urban site. Traffic and industrial sites have monitors, the others manual samplers.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire. Information on cities and site classification is missing.
At present (since 1993) there is an urban network with 31 sites. In addition, Budapest has a smog alarm system with 8 sites. There are 2 background sites (1 EMEP site). The networks are equipped with monitors.
SO2, NOx, CO and TSP is measured at all sites. O3 and NMVOC is measured at 2 sites in Budapest. It is unknown whether traffic and industrial hot-spot sites are included.
Quality controlled data after 3 months.
Annual data reports after 12 months.
Available info is from the WABOLU/WHO questionnaire. Information on cities and site classification is missing.
Since 1990 several networks have been established. The General National Network includes more than 500 sites (incl. all cities >20,000 inhab.). The Basic National Network has 5 sites. Regional networks of Katowice and Krakow have 19 sites, and industrial networks (Kedzierzyn-Kozic and 7 other areas) have 33 sites. In addition there is an 8-city DOAS network. There are 11 regional sites (EMEP (4), GEMS, HELCOM).
All CSD compounds are covered extensively. O3 is measured at 25 sites, VOC at 34 sites, PM10 is measured, BTX at 8 sites, and CO at 26 sites. There are more than 3000 dustfall sites. In addition, H2S, phenol, fluoride, HCHO, and BaP is also measured. The sites are generally operated all year, but the General Network is operated on only 80-200 days of the year. The spatial coverage is substantial.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire. Information on cities and site classification is missing.
There are 3 national and several local/regional networks. The national networks are the Regional network (5 sites), Precipitation quality network (133 sites) and Radioactivity network (44 sites). Local/regional networks operate 127 sites, incl. 25 in Bucaresti. 2 urban sites (Bucaresti) and 2 regional sites are equipped with monitors, the others with manual samplers.
SO2, NO2 and SPM coverage is substantial, O3 is measured at 5 sites, CO and VOC at 2 sites. In addition, NH3 is measured all local sites (127). Also Cl2, HCl, H2S, HCHO, C6H5OH, furfurol, H2SO4, Cd is measured. It is not known whether the 127 sites are operated every day. The spatial coverage seems good. It is not known whether traffic hot-spots are represented.
All information is available after 1-2 months. Daily data from monitors can be given.
Data reports are available 6-12 months after sampling.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire and the Slovakian AQ data report for 1993. The information is rather complete.
The national Urban network has (as of 1995) 30 sites in 17 urban areas (mostly urban background sites), incl. 4 in Bratislava area. The national Background Network has 7 sites. 4 EMEP sites.
The urban sites have SO2, NOx, TSP, O3 (13 sites), CO (8 sites), Pb (12 sites). The background network has SO2, NOx, major ions, HNO3, SPM, heavy metals, O3. The networks are operated continuously all year. The spatial coverage seems fairly good. Traffic and industrial hot-spot sites are well represented.
Quality controlled data available after 2-3 months (Urban network: after 1 month).
Annual report available by August the following year.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 and WABOLU/WHO questionnaires, and from the Slovenian AQ data report for 1991-92.
There are several national and local networks in operation. The National Basic Network (NAS) has 8 sites (7 urban and 3 regional (EMEP-GAW) site). The National Complementary Network has 7 sites and there is a national SO2/Black Smoke network (NAMN) with 66 sites. There are some additional local networks with 7 sites, and a national precipitation network (PADAVINE) with 8 sites. NAMN and PADAVINE have manual samplers, the other sites have monitors.
SO2 and BS are covered well, there are 7 NOx sites and 6 O3 sites, 4 CO sites and 1 VOC site.
ANAS is coupled to an information system, which includes early warning. Data availability is not clearly stated.
Annual reports available in April-May.
Available info is from the MA 1-2 questionnaire, and the Swiss AQ data report for 1993.
The National Network (NABEL) operates presently 16 sites throughout the country, partly urban, traffic hot-spot and regional sites. 24 cantonal networks operates (1993) about 135 ordinary sites, and in addition sites for passive SO2 and NO2, and dustfall, 6 EMEP sites.
CSD compounds are well covered. There are 131 O3 sites, 2 VOC sites, 102 passive NO2 and 12 passive SO2 sites. Spatial and temporal coverage is substantial.
Annual reports in July-August next year.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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