National differences within Europe
National Differences within Europe
This chapter presents a comparison of national emission profiles for the major sources of air emissions in Europe. These sources are identical with the ten biggest sub-sectors (top ten sub-sectors) for each pollutant as discussed in the last chapter.
Care must be taken when comparing national emission profiles. The following points should be kept in mind as possible causes for observed differences in emission values among countries.
- different amount of activity: e. g. different number of animals.
- different emission per activity: special technologies in certain countries can lead to different emission factors.
- inconsistencies: some countries may assign emissions to different sub-sectors or do not evaluate emissions of a specific sub-sector at all (gaps) or use inappropriate activity rates or emission factors. All of these features are being examined by ETC/AEM and UNECE Task Force on Emission Inventories Expert Panels and will be considered with national experts to improve the quality of next inventories and update the 1990 inventory.
The first part of this chapter will present the total emissions in tonnes (1000 tonnes for CO2) and percentage for each country which contributes to the ten largest sub-sectors in Europe.
Part two offers a comparison of the participating European countries on the basis of per capita emissions for the top ten sub-sectors in Europe.
Comparison of total emissions
This chapter presents those countries in which the top ten sub-sectors are mainly located. Countries with emissions of more than 10% of the European total of a specific sub-sector will be graphically for each top ten sub-sector (see figure 36). Countries which contribute less than 10% to the European total are summarised as Others in figure 36. Some figures are marked with an asterisk. This indicates that emission data from less than 20 countries were available for this source sub-sector. For details on emissions for each country in tonnes per year see Appendix D, for emissions for each country in percentage of the European total (per sub-sector) see Appendix F.
Usually, sources of emissions are spread over the European countries. However, the emissions of some source sub-sectors are caused by only a few countries. The following summary gives an overview which countries contribute most to the more important source sub-sectors with emphasis on sub-sectors for which only a few countries contribute the largest share of the European emission total for this sub-sector.
It is worth noting that the top three sub-sectors (Public Power and Congeneration Plants; Industrial Combustion in Boilers; Commercial, Industrial and Residential Combustion Plants) for SO2 are dominated by the United Kingdom, Germany (former East) and Poland. This is not surprising as these countries use a lot of (domestic) coal as fuel and until 1990 did not use emission control technology like flue gas desulphurization (FGD) technology on a larger scale. Spain and Czech Republic are also countries which contribute more than 10% to one of the three top sub-sectors and also in these two countries emissions of SO2 result mainly from the combustion of domestic coal without using best available abatement technology.
For the first time CORINAIR 90 gives a more detailed insight into the SO2 emissions from industry on a European scale. It is interesting to note that whereas SO2 emissions from Industrial Combustion in Boilers etc. are dominated by countries like Germany (former East), United Kingdom and Poland, SO2 emissions from Industrial Combustion - Processes with Contact are dominated by Poland, Spain, France and Italy. Three of these countries (Spain, France and Italy) also dominate the SO2 emissions from Industrial Combustion from Processes without Contact.
The emissions from the SO2 top five (District Heating Plants) is dominated by Central and Eastern European countries, probably due to the extensive use of coal in these plants.
More than half of European emissions of SO2 top nine (Other Mobile Sources - Marine Activities) is emitted by Greece due to a very high activity in this sub-sector. It is worth noting, that some smaller countries (Latvia, Netherlands) belong to the group of European countries with emissions of more than 10% for one of the top ten sub-sectors of SO2 (Latvia for the top five sub-sector and the Netherlands for the top ten sub-sector).
The most focused sub-sector for the SO2 top ten is Nature - Volcanoes (SO2 top six). Only Italy reported emissions for this sub-sector.
As is the case for SO2, those countries with the largest CO2 emissions present different profiles for each of the top ten sub-sectors.
Whereas the same country, namely the United Kingdom, has the largest contribution to the SO2 and CO2 top one sub-sector (Public Power and Cogeneration), not Germany (former East) but Germany (former West) is the country with the second largest CO2 emissions from this sub-sector. Comparing the amount of SO2 (in kg) which is emitted per ton of CO2 in former West and East Germany this different ranking becomes clear: app. 1 kg SO2 / t CO2 in former West compared to 18 kg SO2 / t CO2 in former East. The smaller SO2 emissions per ton CO2 in former West Germany are the result of using fuels with lower sulphur content and application of FGD units.
Germany (former West) provides the largest contribution for the top two, three and four CO2 sub-sectors and the second largest contribution to the top six sub-sector, probably due to its large population and large transport sector. For the top five sub-sector (Industrial Combustion - Processes with Contact) the same countries as for SO2 (Poland, France, Spain and Italy) are the largest contributors.
The countries with the largest population and transport sector (Germany, former West; United Kingdom; France and Italy) in Europe are dominating the emissions from the top one sub-sector (Road Transport - Passenger Cars) and top three subsector (Road Transport - Heavy Duty Vehicles.) The situation is somehow different with respect to the top nine subsector (Road Transport - Light Duty Vehicles) as Germany, former West contributes less than 10% (app. 6,5%) to European emissions of this source sub-sector. The main contributors to the top two subsector (Public Power and Cogeneration) are the United Kingdom and Poland, which is comparable to the situation for SO2. The emissions from former West Germany are relatively small (7 %), probably due to application of de-NOx measures. The main contributing countries to the combustion related industrial sub-sectors (top four and top six NOx sub-sectors) are the same countries as for CO2 for the same sub-sectors (respectively former West Germany and Poland). This indicates that the emission estimates of NOx and CO2 for these subsectors are consistent.
It is interesting to note that Greece contributes only 28% to the NOx top eight sub-sector compared to 51% for the SO2 top nine sub-sector (both: Other Mobile Sources - Marine Activity).
Another sub-sector to mention here is NOx top ten (Production Proc. - Inorganic Chemical Industry) where Poland is responsible for 30%.
Finally it is worth noting that the country with the second largest NOx top ten emission is Bulgaria.
The top one sub-sector for CO (Road Transport - Passenger Cars) corresponds well to the top source for NOX and so do the main contributing countries. This is a clear indication of the consistency of the estimates for this top sub-sector and its various pollutants in the different countries.
The results with respect to the country split are not as consistent for other top sub-sectors like Road Transport, Heavy Duty Vehicles (top six) or Industrial Combustion in Boilers, Gas Turbines and Stationary Engines (top nine).
In general a smaller number of countries are responsible for emissions from the CO top ten sub-sectors than those for the pollutants described previously. CO top ten, nine and three is dominated by Poland. France emits 46% of the CO top five sub-sector (Road Transport - Light Duty Vehicles <3,5t) and is the country with the biggest emissions of top two (Commercial, Institutional and Residential Combustion Plants) and seven (Production Processes- Iron and Steel Industries nad Collieries) as well.
Results which indicate a need for a more detailed investigation are listed below:
- The United Kingdom and Germany (former West) are the major contributors to NOx top three sub-sector (Road Transport - Heavy Duty Vehicles >3,5t and Buses), but both countries contribute less than 10% to CO emissions from the same sub-sector.
- Italy and France together contribute 63% to top eight (Other Mobile Sources - Off Road Vehicles and Machines). No other country contributes more than 10%. Whereas France contributes less than 10% to NOx emissions of the same sub-sector, Germany (former West) contributes more than 10% to NOx emissions from this sub-sector, but less than 10 % to CO emissions from the same sub-sector.
- Poland contributes 70% to the top ten sub-sector (Industrial Combustion - Process Furnaces without Contact). No other country contributes more than 10% to the European total.
- Poland and Germany (former East) together contribute 67% to top nine (Industrial Combustion in Boilers, Gas Turbines and Stationary Engines).
The European countries with large population and area (France; United Kingdom; Germany, former West) dominate the emissions for the top sub-sector Agriculture - Animal Breeding. The emissions of the top two sub-sector (Waste Treatment and Disposal - Land Filling) is also dominated by European countries with large population and area (Germany, former West; Italy; United Kingdom) whereas the countries with high coal mining activity (Poland; Germany, former West; Czech Republic an United Kingdom) are those with the largest contribution with respect to Extraction an 1st Treatment of Solid Fuels (the top 3 sub-sector).
Looking at the top five sub-sector, Agriculture - Animal Breeding (excretions) however, only one of the larger European countries (Germany, former West) is among those with a contribution larger 10%. This is an indication that the results for CH4 emissions are less consistent compared to SO2 or CO2 .
Another unexpected result is the large emission for the CH4 top four sub-sector (Nature - Waters) reported by Greece. This high value is due to the large area of app. 860 000 km2 which has been taken into account. However, fifteen countries did not report any CH4 emission for this sub-sector, among them large countries as Germany and the United Kingdom. Noteworthy is furthermore that Poland contributes 46% to the top nine (Agriculture - Cultures with Fertilizers) and Sweden 43% to the top six sub-sector (Nature - Humid Zones). Such unexpected results are mainly due to the fact that for the top four to top ten sub-sectors only a few countries have reported emissions.
Spain reports the largest CH4 emissions for Coniferous and Deciduous Forests in Europe. The other five countries which contribute more than 10% have quite different profiles (Poland and Austria reported the largest emissions for Coniferous Forests, Italy and Greece for Deciduous Forests).
In general the results for CH4 are less complete and consistent than the results for SO2 and CO2.
The emissions of the top sub-sector (Agriculture - Animal Breeding), which dominates overall European NH3 emissions (see figure 23), are dominated by France and Germany (former West). This is consistent with the results for the CH4 emissions of the same source. NH3 emissions are dominated by Animall Breeding (excretions) whereas CH4 emissions are dominated by Animal Breeding (enteric fermentation).
The largest emissions for the top two sub-sector (Agriculture - Cultures with Fertilizers) were reported by Greece due to the use of a very high emission factor. Poland, Italy and France are the countries with a contribution larger 10% for top three sub-sector (Production Processes-Inorganic Chemical Industry).
European emissions for the other NH3 top ten sub-sectors are dominated by a few countries. With the exception of the three most important sub-sectors, only one or two countries are responsible for almost all of the European total. This is due to the fact that only a few countries have reported emissions for those sub-sectors.
Most countries provided values for the N2O top ten sub-sectors. As can be expected large countries like Poland and the United Kingdom are the European countries with the largest N2O emissions for the top sub-sector (Agriculture-Cultures with Fertilizers). This result corresponds quite well with the fact that for the same sub-sector the United Kingdom is among the European countries with the largest NH3 emissions and Poland the country with the largest CH4 emissions.
Germany (former West), the United Kingdom and France are responsible for 93% of the emissions from top two sub-sector (Production Processes-Organic Chemical Industry). However only two other countries reported emissions for this sub-sector the results being an order of magnitude lower compared to the above mentioned countries.
Remarkable is top three (Nature - Waters) with Greece being responsible for more than three quarters of the European total (see also comment for CH4). However, it should be noted that thirteen countries did not report any emissions for this sub-sector, among them such large countries as Germany (former West) and the United Kingdom. Spain is as for CH4 the country with the largest N2O emissions for Coniferous and Deciduous Forests, the top four N2O sub-sector.
The NMVOC emissions for the top sub-sector Road Transport - Passenger Cars compare quite well to the results for the NOX - emissions from the same sub-sector with the same four countries (United Kingdom; France; Italy and Germany former West) each contributing more than 10% to the European total of this sub-sector. As can be expected the same four countries are dominating the emissions of the top three sub-sector Solvent Use and Paint Application and the top four sub-sector Solvent Use - other Use of Solvent and Related Activities as well.
It is noteworthy that only two countries, Germany (former West) and the United Kingdom, are responsible for together 51% of the emissions from the top ten sub-sector (Gasoline Distribution). No other country contributed more than 10% to this sub-sector. In contrast to this, Germany (former West) and the United Kingdom contributed only 30% to NMVOC emissions from the top one sub-sector (Road Transport - Passenger Cars) and the United Kingdom alone contributed less than 10%. These results seem inconsistent and could be investigated in more detail.
As for CH4 and N2O Spain is the country with the largest NMVOC emissions from Forests (both Coniferous and Deciduous), the top two and top five sub-sector for NMVOC respectively. However, it is surprising to find Austria, one of the smaller European countries, recorded twice among countries with the largest emissions for a sub-sector (rank two for top eight - Solvent Use-Chemical Products Manufacturing or Processing - and rank three for top seven - Commercial, Institutional and Residential Combustion Plants). The high contribution to top seven (as well that of Sweden) can be attributed to the large amount of wood burned in small furnaces.
Summarised the stability of the ranking for all pollutants seems reliable for the three biggest sources but becomes less reliable from there on for SO2, CO2, NOx, CO and NMVOC. The emissions for CH4, N2O and NH3 have not been evaluated as consistently and comprehensively. The ranking for these pollutants is therefore more uncertain.
Comparison of per capita emissions
This chapter describes points of interest concerning the per capita emissions in 29 European countries of the top five emitters for the eight pollutants investigated in CORINAIR 90 (see figure 37). The corresponding figures can be found in Appendix E. For the per capita average values for Europe, EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 we refer to Summary report 1.
The per capita emissions of each country differ considerably for the top one sub-sector Public Power and Cogeneration Plants. In general, EFTA-5 countries record the smallest figures, EU-12 countries report figures in the middle of the range and PHARE-10 countries exhibit the highest values. However, the United Kingdom (the EU-12 country with the largest per capita emissions of the top one sub-sector) reported even larger figures than some PHARE-10 countries.
Due to the use of state-of-the-art abatement technology since the middle of the 1980s and to the contribution of low emission energy sources e. g. water power plants or nuclear power plants and a higher energy efficiency, former EFTA-5 countries and EU-12 countries produce on average 100 times less than the per capita SO2 emissions of some PHARE-10 countries, such as Bulgaria, Germany (former East), Estonia and Czech Republic. For the majority of the countries (21) the per capita SO2 emissions are highest for the top one sub-sector.
In general, the per capita emissions for the SO2 top two sub-sector Industrial Combustion in Boilers, Gas Turbines and Stationary Engines exhibit a quite similar ranking to the previous one. The gap between the per capita emissions of the former EU-12 and EFTA-5 countries is on average smaller than for the top one sub-sector. Curiously, some PHARE-10 countries with very high per capita emissions for the top one sub-sector have quite low per capita emissions for the SO2 top two sub-sector. Germany (former East) is the only country with similar per capita emissions for the SO2 top two sub-sector (with a value of app. 100 kg SO2 per capita) compared to the top one sub-sector. Four countries (Austria, France, Germany, former West and Sweden) reported the per capita emissions of the top two sub-sector as the highest ones. This difference between the per capita emissions of the top one and top two sub-sector can be due to the broader implementation of FGD and other measures in the public power sector than in the industrial sector.
The per capita SO2 emissions for the top three sub-sector Commercial, Institutional and Residential Combustion Plants of the EFTA-5 and EU-12 countries are quite similar to the emissions of the top two sub-sector and are about three times lower than the European average. The per capita SO2 emissions of the PHARE-10-countries can be grouped into two groups. One group consists of countries with per capita emissions quite similar to those of the EFTA-5 and EU-12 countries. The second group consists of countries with per capita emissions that are between two and three times higher.
The per capita emissions for the top four sub-sector Industrial Combustion, Processes with Contact differ widely between the EFTA-5, EU-12 and PHARE-10 country-groups. In each grouping countries could be found with high, medium and low per capita emissions. The exceptions are Luxembourg for the EU-12 countries and Poland for the PHARE-10 countries which have significant higher per capita emissions.
The per capita emissions of the top five sub-sector District Heating Plants in the PHARE-10 countries are between five and ten times higher than those of the EFTA-5 and EU-12 countries. High per capita emissions can be trailed to a less intensive use of low-sulfur fuels and abatement technologies and/or to a high contribution of district heating to the production of heat.
Estonia reported by far the largest per capita CO2 emission for the top one sub-sector (Public Power and Cogeneration Plants) with more than 10 000 kg per capita, this figure being nearly twice as large as that of the country (Germany, former East) with the next largest value. This striking result is due to the fact that Estonia operated several large power plants fuelled by oil shale. The electricity produced was exported to other regions of the former USSR. Meanwhile the emissions as well as the export of electricity declined significantly. Since 1990 such significant changes have taken place not only in Estonia but in many other PHARE-10 countries as well.
Norway and Switzerland reported extremely low figures (2 and 44 kg CO2 per capita) which are mainly due to the utilization of non-fuel combustion energy sources (hydroelectric and hydroelectric and nuclear) for power production in both countries.
It is interesting to note that the third largest per capita CO2 emission (8 494 kg CO2 per capita) has been estimated for Industrial Combustion-Processes with Contact in Luxembourg indicating that emissions from the (steel) industry dominate in this country.
Romania is the country with by far the lowest CO2 emission for the top sub-sectors in the traffic sector; the per capita emission for Road Transport with Passenger Cars is 16 times lower in Romania than in Belgium (Wallonie region), the country with the largest per capita emission (1 632 kg CO2 per capita) for this sub-sector.
The detailed split of the CORINAIR methodology allows to identify three groups of countries. The first group of countries can be characterized as those with the highest per capita emissions of NOX originating from Road Transport, Passenger Cars (usually EU-12 countries or EFTA-5 countries like Belgium, Germany West or Switzerland and Sweden). The second group of countries is dominated by PHARE-10 countries and can be characterized as those with the highest per capita emissions of NOX originating from Public Power an Cogeneration Plants. However also Ireland and the United Kingdom are part of this group. The third group of countries is very special: there is Luxembourg with the highest per capita NOX emissions from one sub-sector (Industrial Combustion - Processes with Contact) and Norway, Greece and Latvia with the per capita emissions from Marine activities, the top eight sub-sector, being highest.
Furthermore it is interesting to note that Romania has the lowest per capita emissions with respect to NOx top one and three sub-sectors (Road Transport - Passenger Cars and Heavy Duty Vehicles) as for CO2.
The per capita NOx emissions show less differences between the European countries compared to those for SO2. This finding corresponds well with the fact that, unlike the case with SO2, no European countries have until 1990 achieved significant NOx emission reductions.
In 19 of the investigated 29 countries the main source with the highest per capita emissions in 1990 was Road Transport - Passenger Cars. The figures range from 26,8 kg CO/capita in Slovenia to nearly 152 kg CO/capita in Norway.
As for NOx per capita emissions Luxembourg had the highest figure (259 kg CO/capita) originating from the same top sub-sector as for NOX (Industrial Combustion - Processes with Contact).
Three countries (Austria, Bulgaria and Germany, former East) reported its highest per capita CO emissions of a country from Commercial, Institutional and Residential Combustion Plants. The per capita emissions for this sub-sector span a very wide range from 0,0 kg CO/capita (Ireland and Greece) to 101,9 kg CO/capita (Austria). One country (Romania) reported its highest per capita CO emissions from Open Burning of Agricultural Wastes, a sub-sector which has not been investigated at all by many countries.
Eleven countries reported its highest per capita CH4 emissions from top one sub-sector Animal Breeding (enteric fermentation), the figures for this sub-sector being as high as app. 160 kg CH4 / capita (Ireland), this exceptional high figure being due to the large number of cattle in this country in relation to the number of inhabitants.
Five countries, among them both Germanys (former East and former West) estimated the highest per capita emissions for the top two sub-sector, Waste Treatment and Disposal - Land Filling and in four countries (usually countries with extensive mining activities like Poland and Czech Republic) per capita CH4 emissions for the top three subsector, Extraction and 1st Treatment of Solid Fuels , were highest.
Only one country (Romania) reported, that the per capita emissions from Gas Distribution Networks were its highest. In five countries per capita emissions from natural sources (Waters or Humid Zones) were highest, the per capita CH4 emissions from Waters in Greece being the single largest contribution from one country for one sub-sector (430 kg CH4 per capita; however it was already mentioned that Greece reported an unreliable area for this sub-sector).
Regarding the dominating share of NH3 emissions from the top one subsector Animal Breeding (excretions) it is not surprising that 25 countries reported its highest per capita emissions for this sub-sector. However the largest per capita emission for a top sub-sector (Greece, 39 kg NH3 per capita) was reported for top two Agriculture - Cultures with Fertilizers except Animal Manure, which as already mentioned is due to the use of a very high emission factor. The figures for other sub-sectors (top 3 to top 10), estimated in countries like Poland, Switzerland, Slovak Republic, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, show that these sub-sectors do not contribute much to the total emissions of NH3.
The top one sub-sector Cultures with Fertilizers is dominating, being the source with the highest per capita emissions in 21 countries. Ireland reported the highest figure (11 kg N2O /capita). However a comparison with the results for the per capita NH3 emissions of the same sub-sector may indicate some uncertainties with respect to NH3 and N2O emission factors for this sub-sector.
Production of Organic Chemical Industry is the most important sub-sector in France and Germany, former West, and Nature - Waters the most important one in Greece and Sweden. It is remarkable, that for this sub-sector Greece estimated the highest figure for the per capita emissions of a top N2O sub-sector (16 kg N2O per capita) as for CH4 but again this high figure is due to the unreliable area taken into account.
Agriculture - Cultures without Fertilizers produced the largest contribution to the per capita emissions in Romania as well as in Slovenia. However this country was the only one which did not report figures for cultures with fertilizers.
Production of Inorganic Chemical Industry dominated the per capita emissions in Norway whereas in Spain the sub-sector with the highest per capita emissions was Nature - Coniferous Forests.
As for NOx and CO Road Transport - Passenger Cars is the sub-sector with the largest contribution to the per capita NMVOC emissions for most countries (14).
The largest NMVOC per capita emission from Road Transport - Passenger Cars was estimated for Germany (former East) with app. 20 kg NMVOC per capita. This high figure was not due to the many passenger kilometres travelled, as Germany (former East) is only 17th rank of the CO2 emission per capita from the same sub-sector. The large specific emissions from the two-stroke engines may have dominated the emissions of the national car fleet at this time. The second largest figure for NMVOC top sub-sector one (18,2 kg NMVOC per capita) was estimated for Belgium (Wallonie region). This corresponds well with the high CO2 emission per capita for this sub-sector.
Nature - Coniferous Forests is the sub-sector with the largest contribution to the per capita NMVOC emissions for five countries. These countries like Finland, Austria and Sweden usually have a large forested area. The per capita emissions of this sub-sector for Finland show the highest per capita emissions of a top sub-sector for NMVOC (46 kg per capita).
In the more southern countries like Bulgaria, Greece and Spain the per capita NMVOC emissions of Deciduous Forests are the dominating ones.
Road Transport-Gasoline Evaporation from Vehicles is the sub-sector with the largest per capita emission in Ireland. This country is the only one with lower NMVOC emissions per capita from Passenger Cars compared to Evaporation from Vehicles.
The range of per capita emissions is much larger for the top three (Solvent Use - Paint Application) and top four sub-sector (Solvent Use - Other Use of Solvents and Related Activities). The largest figure was reported by the Slovak Republic (8,1 kg NMVOC/capita) for the top three sub-sector. The country with the smallest figure reported is Latvia with 0,0 kg NMVOC per capita.
For top four the highest and lowest values were recorded respectively by Switzerland (11,7 kg NMVOC per capita) and Slovenia (0,0 kg NMVOC per capita). These discrepancies might not only indicate differences in the economic structure of these countries but also the uncertainty of these figures. Furthermore the distinction between these two sub-sectors was not very clear. A large part of these emissions was not distributed by many countries (see figure 34 and 35).
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