3. Non-Methane Volatile Organic Com

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3. NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - NMVOC

3.1 NMVOC-emissions by countries

The 1990 annual total NMVOC-emissions for EUROPE were estimated to be 22 million tonnes. These emissions broken down by EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 countries are shown in figure 3.1. The largest contributor were the EU-12 countries with 69%, second largest the PHARE-10 countries with 16%. The EFTA-5 countries contributed 11% and Germany (former East) and Malta 4%.

Figure 3.1: Contribution in % to the EUROPEAN total NMVOC-emissions

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Figure 3.2 shows the relative contribution of individual countries to the total of 20 million tonnes. In 1990 the largest contributing countries were France (13%), United Kingdom (12%), Germany (former West 11%) and Italy (12%); the smallest contributing countries were Malta (0.02%), Luxembourg (0.09%) and Slovenia (0.2%). These differences are due to different size of population, different per capita emissions (see also paragraph 3.3) and differences in emissions from natural sources.

Figure 3.2: Contribution in % of each country to the EUROPEAN total NMVOC-emissions

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3.2 NMVOC-emissions per group

One third of the NMVOC-emissions for EUROPE resulted from emissions of group 7 (road transport) and from group 8 (other mobile sources and machinery). Group 6 (solvent use) and group 11 (nature) each contributed about 20% and group 4 (production processes) and group 5 (extraction and distribution of fossil fuels) each contributed 6%. In contrast to other pollutants group 1 (public power, cogeneration and district heating), 2 (commercial, institutional and residential combustion) and 3 (industrial combustion) together produced little of the NMVOC-emissions with only 6%. The remaining 5% of the total emissions can be attributed almost exclusively to emissions of the groups 9 (waste treatment and disposal) and 10 (agriculture).

The split of the NMVOC-emissions into groups for EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 countries is quite similar compared to the split for EUROPE with the exception of the larger contribution of group 2 (commercial, institutional and residential combustion) with 10% and of group 11 (nature) with 33% to the total NMVOC-emissions for the EFTA-5 countries (see figure 3.3).

The differences of contributions especially of source groups 2, 6, 7 and 11 to the total emissions are larger between countries than these groups (see also table 3.1). The relative contribution of the NMVOC-emissions of group 2 ranges from 20% (Czech Republic) to 0% (Finland, Greece, Malta, Luxembourg), of group 7 from 59% (Malta) to 10% (Romania), of group 6 (solvent use) from 47% (Switzerland) to 1% (Latvia), and of group 11 from 68% (Portugal) to 0% (Estonia, Hungary, Malta, Norway, Slovenia, Switzerland).

However it is evident from these differences in the relative contribution of sourcegroups to a countries total emission that strategies for reduction of NMVOC-emissions need individual solutions as well as common elements.

Figure 3.3: Contribution in % of source groups to the EUROPEAN NMVOC-emissions

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3.3 NMVOC-emissions per capita

Only anthropogenic emissions are expected to be related to population for these calculations. Therefore group 11 (nature) has been excluded.

For EUROPE the average NMVOC-emissions per capita were as 36 kg/capita. Compared to this number the per capita NMVOC-emissions were almost equal (+6%) for the EU-12 countries with 38 kg/capita, 39% larger for the EFTA-5 countries with 50 kg/capita and 31% smaller for the PHARE-10 countries with 25 kg/capita. This comparison is also shown in figure 3.4 and table 9.

Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared; the largest NMVOC-emissions per capita were estimated for Norway (64 kg/capita) and the next largest ones for Austria (55 kg/capita) and Sweden (53 kg/capita); the smallest per capita emissions for NMVOC were calculated for Malta (13 kg/capita), Hungary (14 kg/capita), Slovenia and Latvia (each 18 kg/capita) and Portugal (20 kg/capita). Figure 3.5 shows the countries ranked according their per capita emissions. The already mentioned special report for NMVOC will analyse these large differences in the per capita emissions for NMVOC; the smallest per capita emissions being a factor of 5 smaller compared to the largest number.

Figure 3.4: NMVOC-emissions per capita for EUROPE

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Figure 3.5: NMVOC-emissions per capita for individual countries

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3.4 NMVOC-emissions per km2

The emissions per km2 have been calculated from the total emissions, the emissions of group 11 (nature) having been included in this case.

For EUROPE the average NMVOC-emissions per km2 were estimated as 4 603 kg/km2. Compared to this number the per km2 NMVOC-emissions were 45% larger for the EU-12 countries with 6 676 kg/km2, 30% smaller for the PHARE-10 countries with 3 221 kg/km2 and 58% smaller for the EFTA-5 countries with 1 941 kg/km2. This comparison is also shown in figure 3.6 and table 10.

Figure 3.6: NMVOC-emissions per km2 for EUROPE

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Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared; the largest NMVOC-emissions per km2 were for Belgium, Flemish region (16 871 kg/km2), Malta (14 101 kg/km2) and the next largest ones for the Netherlands (11 094 kg/km2) and the United Kingdom (10 986 kg/km2); the smallest emissions per km2 for NMVOC were for Norway (833 kg/km2), Finland (1 353 kg/km2) and Latvia (1 549 kg/km2). Figure 3.7 shows the countries ranked according their NMVOC-emission per km2. The differences in the emissions per km2 between countries are much larger compared to the per capita emissions. The smallest number being 20 times smaller than the largest number.


Figure 3.7: NMVOC-emissions per km2 for individual countries

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Table 3.1: Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds emissions per country and group

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