2. Nitrogen Oxides NOx
2.1 NOx-emissions by countries
The 1990 annual total NOx-emissions for EUROPE were estimated to be 18 million tonnes as NO2. These emissions broken down by EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 countries are shown in figure 2.1. The largest contributor were the EU-12 countries with 67%, second largest the PHARE-10 countries with 22%; the EFTA-5 countries contributed 7% and Germany (former East), Croatia and Malta 4%.
Figure 2.1: Contribution in % to the European total NOx-emissions
Figure 2.2 shows the relative contribution of individual countries to the total of 18 million tonnes. In 1990 the largest contributing countries were the United Kingdom (15%), Germany (former West; 13%) and Italy (11%); the smallest contributing countries were Malta (0.06%), Luxembourg (0.1%), Slovenia (0.3%) and Estonia (0.4%). These differences are due to different size of population and different per capita emissions (see also paragraph 2.3).
Figure 2.2: Contribution in % of each country to the EUROPEAN total NOx-emissions
2.2 NOx-emissions per group
More than fifty percent of the NOx-emissions for EUROPE in 1990 were produced by road transport (group 7) and other mobile sources and machinery (group 8). Forty percent of the NOx-emissions for EUROPE resulted from emissions of group 1 (public power, cogeneration and district heating), group 2 (commercial, institutional and residential combustion) and group 3 (industrial combustion) together. Group 7 contributed the largest share with 44%, groups 1, 3 and 8 were the groups with the next largest contribution of 21, 14 and 13%. The remaining 8% of the total emissions can be attributed to emissions of the group 2 (commercial, institutional and residential combustion), group 4 (production processes) and group 9 (waste treatment and disposal).
The split of the NOx-emissions into groups for EU-12, EFTA-5 and PHARE-10 countries is quite similar compared to the split for EUROPE with the exception of the relative large contribution of group 1 with 32% and a relative small contribution of group 7 with 22% for the PHARE-10 countries and a larger contribution of group 8 with 22% for the EFTA-5 countries (see figure 2.3).
The differences of contributions of the main source groups 7, 1, 3, and 8 to the total emissions are larger between countries than these groups (see also table 2.1). The contribution of group 7 in the countries ranges from 68% (Austria) to 9% (Romania), of group 1 from 42% (Czech Republic) to 0.4% (Norway), group 3 from 47% (Luxembourg) to nearly 0.4% (Greece) and group 8 from 50% (Norway) to 2% (Belgium, Wallonie region).
It is intended to explain these significant differences in a special NOx-report. However it is evident from these differences in the relative contribution of source groups to a countries total emissions that strategies for reduction of NOx-emission will need individual solutions as well as common elements.
Figure 2.3: Contribution in % of source groups to the European NOx-emissions
Only anthropogenic emissions are expected to be related to population for these calculations. Therefore group 11 (nature) has been excluded.
For EUROPE the average NOx-emissions per capita were 37 kg/capita. Compared to this number the per capita NOx-emissions were only little larger for the EFTA-5 countries with 39 kg/capita, equal for the EU-12 and PHARE-10 countries with 37 kg/capita. This comparison is also shown in figure 2.4 and table 9.
Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared; the largest NOx-emissions per capita were estimated for the Czech Republic (75 kg/capita) and the next largest ones for Luxembourg (61 kg/capita), Norway (55 kg/capita) and Finland and Greece (each 54 kg/capita); the smallest per capita emissions for NOx were calculated for Hungary (18 kg/capita), Portugal and Croatia each (21 kg/capita), Romania (24 kg/capita) and Switzerland (25 kg/capita). Figure 2.5 shows the countries ranked according their per capita emissions. The already mentioned special report for NOx will analyse these differences in the per capita emissions for NOx, the smallest per capita emissions being almost a factor of 4 smaller compared to the largest number.
Figure 2.4: NOx-emissions per capita for EUROPE
Figure 2.5: NOx-emissions per capita for individual countries
2.4 NOx-emissions per km2
The emissions per km2 have been calculated from the total emissions, the emissions of group 11 (nature) having been included in this case.
For EUROPE the average NOx-emissions per
km2 were estimated as 3 807 kg/km2. Compared to this number the per
km2 NOx-emissions were 3% smaller for the PHARE-10 countries with 3
677 kg/km2, 42% larger for the EU-12 countries with
5 396 kg/km2 and 74% smaller for the EFTA-5 countries with 1 000 kg/km2. This comparison is also shown in figure 2.6 and table 10.
Figure 2.6: NOx-emissions per km2 for EUROPE
Again the differences are much larger if individual countries are compared: the largest NOx-emissions per km2 were for the Malta (36 614 kg/km2) and the next largest ones for Netherlands (13 887 kg/km2) and Belgium, Flemish region (13 439 kg/km2); the smallest emissions per km2 for NOx were for Norway (717 kg/km2), Sweden (767 kg/km2) and Finland (794 kg/km2). Figure 2.7 shows the countries ranked according their NOx-emission per km2. The differences in the emissions per km2 between countries are much larger compared to the per capita emissions. The smallest number being 51 times smaller than the largest number.
Figure 2.7: NOx-emissions per km2 for individual countries
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/92-9167-031-6/page005.html or scan the QR code.
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