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You are here: Home / Publications / Human Interventions in the Hydrological Cycle / appendix a: list of human interventions in the hydrological cycle

appendix a: list of human interventions in the hydrological cycle

Appendix A
List of Human Intervensionss in the Hydrological Cycle

 

“HUMAN INTERVENTIONS IN THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE”

Three main categories have been identified - human interventions in the hydrological cycle (quantity aspects) are caused by:

1. RIVER, LAKE AND ESTUARY REGULATION

2. WATER ABSTRACTION

3. ACTIVITIES IN THE CATCHMENT (mainly changes in land use)


Please fill in and select the most important activities:

Country:_______________________________________

Bio-geographic Region: _______________________

1. River, LAKE AND ESTUARY regulation

(The term River Regulation is used in this context as a general term describing the physical changes that people impose on water courses)

1.1 Damming, building and management of river reservoirs

1.1.1 [ ] Public water supply (drinking water supply)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

1.1.2 [ ] Industrial water supply (for cooling purpose, water for production, water use for mining,…)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

1.1.3 [ ] Cooling water for power plant

( ) Closed circuit

( ) Open circuit

1.1.4 [ ] Irrigation

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

1.1.5 [ ] Hydropower

Type of power stations

( ) Intermittent power generation plant (peak-, seasonal- or base production)

( ) Runoff-river power plant

( ) Pumped-storage plant

( ) Diversion type power plant

( ) Other

1.1.6 [ ] Navigation / Transport

( ) Diversion function (where the dam diverts water into a channel or canal)

( ) Weir function (where the dam controls water levels in the river to permit navigation)

( ) Storage function (where the dam stores water in order to operate sluice gates)

( ) Other

1.1.7 [ ] Flood control

( ) Basin where percolation takes place

( ) Dams acting as dikes to prevent the flooding of specific areas

Laying-up basin

( ) Dam in long and narrow valleys (ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽdynamicŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ capacity)

( ) Large reservoirs situated in plains (ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽstaticŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ capacity)

1.1.8 [ ] Low flow enhancement

( ) To provide a reliable downstream water supply

( ) To protect the downstream river habitat

( ) To maintain alluvial groundwater tables

( ) To enhance flows in the event of a pollution accident

1.1.9 [ ] Fish farming and fishing

1.1.10 [ ] Recreation

1.2 River channelisation (straightening of water courses) due to

1.2.1 [ ] Flood control (torrent damming, breaking-up of avalanches, ...)

1.2.2 [ ] Flooding for irrigation purpose

1.2.3 [ ] Drainage of surrounding land

1.2.4 [ ] Navigation

1.2.5 [ ] Others uses

1.3 Building of weirs

1.3.1 [ ] Flow regulation

1.3.2 [ ] Level regulation

1.3.3 [ ] Improving fish habitats, fish production, fishing possibilities

1.3.4 [ ] Improve aesthetic impression of the river

1.4 Dredging of river channels due to

1.4.1 [ ] Navigation

1.4.2 [ ] Drainage of the surrounding land

1.4.3 [ ] Mining of river bed gravel

1.4.4 [ ] Other uses

 

1.5 Lake regulation

(Natural lakes are formed essentially by natural processes. Semi-artificial lakes have been formed or transformed by man. Unlike natural lakes they often have important ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽartificialŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ aspects like weirs and dykes.)

1.5.1 [ ] Lake shore modification

( ) Natural lakes

( ) Semi-artificial lakes

1.5.2 [ ] Fishing

( ) Natural lakes

( ) Semi-artificial lakes

1.5.3 [ ] Marinas, tourism, recreation purposes

( ) Natural lakes

( ) Semi-artificial lakes

1.5.4 [ ] Reduce flooding / flood defence (of adjacent agricultural land,…)

1.5.5 [ ] Water storage (public supply, hydroenergy, to supply canals/mills,…)

( ) Natural lakes

( ) Semi-artificial lakes

1.5.6 [ ] Others

( ) Natural lakes

( ) Semi-artificial lakes

1.5.7 [ ] Semi-artificial lakes formed by or for drainage of surrounding land

1.6 Estuary regulation

1.6.1 Estuary barrages which span the whole estuary (or nearly the whole estuary)

1.6.1.1 [ ] Hydropower generation

1.6.1.2 [ ] Flood defence

1.6.1.3 [ ] Land reclamation

1.6.1.4 [ ] Navigation, industrial development of port areas

1.6.1.5 [ ] Tourist-oriented development of port areas (raising water levels, covering ŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽunsightlyŽŽŽŽŽŽŽŽ mudflat zones)

1.6.2 Estuary barrages which cover part of an estuary (reservoirs)

1.6.2.1 [ ] Water storage

1.6.2.2 [ ] Land reclamation

1.6.3 Upstream modifications of tidally-influenced river reaches

1.6.3.1 [ ] Upstream tidal control (modifies tidal effects in river)

1.6.3.2 [ ] Upstream flood control (modifies flood effects on estuary areas)

 

1.7 [ ] Lagoon regulation

(Lagoons are lakes or ponds with continual/intermittent connections to the sea. Interventions could be modifications of marine water exchanges for purposes like tourism, flood control, sea defence, beach development,…)

2. WATER ABSTRACTION / RELEASE

(Water abstraction or water withdrawal means water physically moved from its natural site of occurrence) This part doesn’t including water abstraction from impounded rivers (river reservoirs see 1.1)

2.1 Surface water abstraction / release (river, lake)

2.1.1 [ ] Public water supply (drinking water supply)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.1.2 [ ] Industrial water supply (for cooling purpose, water for production, water use for mining,…)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.1.3 [ ] Cooling water for power plants

( ) Closed circuit

( ) Open circuit

2.1.4 [ ] Irrigation

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.1.5 [ ] Fish farms

2.1.6 [ ] Other agricultural water abstraction

2.1.7 [ ] For the generation of hydroelectric power

Type of power stations

( ) Diversion type power station

( ) Storage power plant

( ) Others

2.1.8 [ ] To store water in reservoirs (mainly for drinking water supply)

Pumped intake reservoirs

2.1.9 [ ] Interbasin transfer (hydropower or agricultural purposes)

2.1.10 [ ] To maintain groundwater tables / recharge groundwater bodies

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.1.11 [ ] Lowering the lake surface

2.1.12 [ ] Other uses (tourism e.g. snow making for skiing grounds, ...)

2.1.13 [ ] Major discharges to the river

2.2 Groundwater abstraction / release

2.2.1 [ ] Public water supply (drinking water supply)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.2.2 [ ] Industrial water supply (for cooling purpose, water for production, water use for mining,…)

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.2.3 [ ] Cooling water for power plants

( ) Closed circuit

( ) Open circuit

2.2.4 [ ] Irrigation

( ) of surrounding areas

of far regions (interbasin water transfer, interregional water transfer)

( ) due to a lack of freshwater resources in the receiving area

( ) due to a lack of water quality in the receiving area

2.2.5 [ ] Fish farming

2.2.6 [ ] Due to artificial buildings

( ) Operating of dumping grounds

( ) Tunnelwork, mining,…

2.2.7 [ ] For other purposes (e.g. snow making, …)

2.2.8 [ ] Groundwater recharge

( ) Groundwater recharge schemes

( ) Cessation of long-term groundwater abstraction pumping (closure of factories, mines)

3. ACTIVITIES IN THE CATCHMENTS

3.1 Land drainage due to

3.1.1 [ ] Cultivation

3.1.2 [ ] Flood control (loss of percolation area)

3.1.3 [ ] Urbanisation (including industrial areas)

3.1.4 [ ] Infrastructure for traffic (road, rail,…)

3.1.5 [ ] Other use

3.2 Land sealing (changes in land use) due to

3.2.1 [ ] Urbanisation (including industrial areas)

3.2.2 [ ] Infrastructure for traffic (road, rail, …)

3.2.3 [ ] Other use (e.g. skiing grounds)

3.3 [ ] Dredging

(Dredging in groundwater bodies - under groundwater table - for mining blocks of stone or gravel,…)

3.4 Agricultural activities (including changes in land use)

3.4.1 [ ] Intensification of agriculture

( ) Cultivation of crops with general high water requirements (maize, sugar-beet, vegetables, ...)

( ) Cultivation of crops depending on irrigation systems (e.g. vegetables in arid areas)

( ) Long-term changes of grassland to arable land

( ) Drainage of wetlands (see 3.1.1)

( ) Water regulation in cultivation areas

3.4.2 [ ] Irrigation management (e.g. inefficient irrigation systems)

3.4.3 [ ] Cultivation management (crop rotation, setaside, …)

3.4.4. [ ] Type of tillage

( ) Cultivation on terrace shaped flats

( ) Plough (no contour farming, ...)

( ) Soil sealing, soil compaction

3.5 Forestry

3.5.1 [ ] Deforestation due to

( ) Cultivation (arable land, grassland)

( ) Urbanisation (including industrial areas)

( ) Tourist reasons (areas for golfing, hotel accommodation, skiing grounds, ..)

( ) Others (torrent damming, breaking-up of avalanches, infrastructure, ...)

3.5.2 [ ] Afforestation in order for

( ) Extensification of land use

( ) Erosion prevention

( ) Production of raw material (pulp and paper, energy,…)

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