3. Overview of the Corinair 90 Process
CORINAIR 90 was extended to include countries outside the EU and now includes 30 countries (although not all of these have reported as yet). All of these countries agreed to contribute and have worked together to produce a single system for the whole of Europe. Definitions had to be agreed. Software was distributed and data collected by national experts.
This effort involved:
- SNAP90 (Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution 90), a source sector hierarchical nomenclature with 260 activities, three levels and 11 main sectors.
- Extending the number of point sources.
- Covered eight pollutants:
- sulphur dioxide (SO2)
- oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
- non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)
- ammonia (NH3)
- carbon monoxide (CO)
- methane (CH4)
- nitrous oxide (N2O)
- carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Collaboration with UNECE which requires inventory information as part of the protocols of the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and OECD (who were developing the IPCC methodology for greenhouse gas emissions). There has also been collaboration with the UNECE Task Force on Emissions Inventories that is producing the EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook on emission inventories based on the SNAP nomenclature.
When national CORINAIR 90 inventories have been compiled and checked, the data is then transferred to an ORACLE database held by the EEA, and the results of the European wide inventory are collated and distributed to users. Table 3 summarises the information which is contained in CORINAIR 90 and the requirements of some potential users. Table 4 is a summary of CORINAIR 90 data for Europe and an example of the more detailed data available from CORINAIR 90 is shown in Table 5.
Table 3 CORINAIR 90 Specifications and User Requirements
|UNECE||EMEP||IPCC||EU Large Combustion
|EU Greenhouse Gas Reporting||Other (e.g. Policy makers, NFP)|
||Other gases required by the IPCC but data requested not expected.||·Particulates
· Specific VOCs
|CORINAIR SNAP LEVEL 1 - 11 GROUPS||·||·||·|
|CORINAIR SNAP LEVEL 2 - 57 CATEGORIES||·|
SNAP LEVEL 3 -
ABOUT 240 CATEGORIES ,
|OTHER||· Point Sources||· 6
groups split into 71 categories
· Sinks (partial)
Existing plant ³ 300 MW
· Existing plant 50 to 300 MW
· New plant ³ 50 MW
|IPCC Source Categories||· DGXI
VOC directive: to be specified
· Policy makers: ISIC and socio -economic categories
|NUTS LEVEL 0 (NATIONAL)||·||·||·||·||·||·||·|
|NUTS LEVEL 3||·||·|
|OTHER||· Individual large point sources as defined by CORINAIR 90||· 50 x 50 km grid||· Individual large point sources as defined in directive||· Not fully defined yet||·
Individual point sources
· Smaller grids
· Urban inventories
|PROVISIONAL DATA||7 months|
|REVISED DATA||12 months||12 months||21 months||9 months||19 months|
Table 4 CORINAIR 90 Summary for Europe
Table 5 Detailed CORINAIR 90 Data for France 1990 Emissions (as Mg except CO2 as Gg) for Industrial combustion plant and Processes with Combustion
|030000||Industrial combustion plant and processes with combustion||514090||164965||7282||6623||598176||87391||2070||0|
|030100||Combustion in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines||328113||66742||2398||2299||8328||44311||1570||0|
|030101||Combustion plants ³ 300 MW||113600||18556||603||565||2337||12653||458||0|
|030102||Combustion plants ³ 50 MW and < 300 MW||70365||17216||564||501||2028||11664||366||0|
|030103||Combustion plants < 50 MW||144116||29604||1200||1200||3871||19478||724||0|
|030200||Process furnaces without contact(1)||63083||13959||594||586||5739||12247||283||0|
|030201||Refinery processes furnaces||49353||6246||205||202||1046||4854||190||0|
|030202||Coke oven furnaces||13196||7137||380||380||4282||1106||14||0|
|030203||Blast furnaces cowpers||0||454||0||0||394||6200||76||0|
|030300||Processes with contact (2)||122895||84263||4290||3739||584109||30833||217||0|
|030302||Reheating furnaces steel and iron||3569||2521||986||118||508||833||0||0|
|030303||Gray iron foundries||374||104||187||21||12456||83||0||0|
|030304||Primary lead production||21804||85||1||0||18||78||0||0|
|030305||Primary zinc production||13946||61||1||0||11||49||0||0|
|030306||Primary copper production||9||103||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|030307||Secondary lead production||3700||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|030308||Secondary zinc production||0||15||18||0||0||0||0||0|
|030309||Secondary copper production||27||5||80||0||10||0||0||0|
|030310||Secondary aluminium production||107||82||22||0||13||0||0||0|
|030312||Lime (including iron and steel and paper pulp industries)||162||1750||14||0||174||2401||0||0|
|030313||Asphalt concrete plants||8640||576||227||0||1644||829||28||0|
|030318||Mineral wool (except binding)||NEG||NEG||NEG||NEG||NEG||NEG||NEG||NEG|
|030319||Bricks and tiles||3976||2565||282||0||8209||1657||0||0|
|030320||Fine ceramic materials||706||456||50||0||1458||294||0||0|
|030321||Paper-mill industry (drying process)||773||335||18||18||61||272||11||0|
Key: 0 = non-existing activity or no emission
NEG = neglected
IE = included elsewhere)
(1) Processes where flames and/or combustion gases are not in contact with other products
(2) Processes where flames and/or combustion gases are in contact with other products
Note: CO2 estimated as "at source"
3.1 Achievements of CORINAIR 90.
While this paper will discuss in detail the problems of CORINAIR 90 it is important to remember that the CORINAIR 90 project has had many significant successes.
CORINAIR 90 is a major step forward in the compilation of a European inventory system that has achieved the highest level of completeness, consistency, comparability and transparency reached to date in such a wide international collaboration. While there are many different ways in which the individual countrys inventories differ the overall inventory is a major step forward in achieving its goals.
The collaboration, assisted by CITEPA, between EMEP and CORINAIR and other technical experts, has produced a system that covers 30 countries with a wide range of experience in the development of their national emission inventories. For some countries CORINAIR 90, was their first attempt at a national inventory while others already had a well developed national system.
CORINAIR 90 has resulted in a source classification, SNAP codes, that now has a wide acceptance in Europe. This is forming the basis of the joint EMEP/CORINAIR guidebook on emission inventories. Several countries wish to use CORINAIR 90 type inventories for data submission to UNECE (and EMEP) and IPCC (with the data conversion routines produced by CITEPA).
Unfortunately, the time-scale for completion of the CORINAIR 90 was not explicitly specified and adhered to as an important objective at the beginning of the project.
3.2 National Approaches to CORINAIR 90
An overview of possible national approaches to producing CORINAIR 90 is shown in Figure 1. Countries have taken different approaches to CORINAIR 90. The questionnaires (with 17 replies out of 31 participants) show that 4 countries used CORINAIR 90 to produce their national estimates, while 7 have ensured that their national estimates are consistent with CORINAIR 90. (Annex A describes the results of the questionnaires. Box 1 gives examples of the approaches taken in particular countries, and Annex B summarises the characteristics of each countrys CORINAIR 90 database).
Each country has reasons for adopting their individual approach and in the medium term the Emissions Inventory Topic Centre must either answer their concerns and needs or include them in any future methodology. A long term aim for the Topic Centre should be the adoption of a single methodology across Europe.
Figure 1 - Overview of Approaches to CORINAIR 90
Box 1 Examples of National Approaches to CORINAIR 90
3.3 Time Taken to Complete the Project.
CORINAIR 90 is only now starting to produce its results. A complete inventory will only be available five years after the end of 1990. CORINAIR 85 has only been completely reported in 1995. These long delays have obscured the many successes of the projects and have severely compromised the usefulness of the whole exercise. It is possible that when the data is finally published it is of limited use to policy makers. It is far too late to supply the data requirements listed in Section 5.3.
There are a number of reasons for this. They include:-
- Time required. The effort needed ranged from 0.5 man-years to 5 man-years for different countries. This needs to be addressed. The Baltic States compiled provisional inventories within six months elapsed time. They had direct assistance and produced inventories with relatively few area activity rates.
- Time waiting for other statistics. Many countries reported that waiting for data from others, either for the publication of official statistics or statistics from source sectors, caused delay to CORINAIR 90. This problem must be addressed, but this is best done on a country by country basis. In the case of official statistics, it may be possible to use pre-publication copies of the data, rather than waiting for them to be officially published. This is possible in the UK. In other countries where this is not possible estimates based on provisional international statistics are possible.
- The effort required to learn to use the system. Two approaches to this problem can be considered. The software could be made simpler, or more direct assistance could be made available.
- The low priority given to CORINAIR 90. This is a matter of policy in individual countries. Greater timeliness of the data would raise the profile of the work, and thus the pressure to meet the deadlines. Pressure from the EEA to collaborate would also help.
- Shortage of funding and delayed contracts. In some countries a shortage of national or CEC funding (e.g. under PHARE), or a delay in receiving a contract from the national customer or the CEC, delayed completion of CORINAIR 90. As above a higher profile for CORINAIR work, and pressure from the EEA to collaborate might help. The switch to a rolling programme of work may also help.
- The need to get internal agreement in an individual country to the data supplied. Again this is an policy consideration. In Belgium two inventories were compiled, one for each part, and this regional approach may help in other cases.
- The amount and variety of the data requested. A lot of data was requested both sectoral and spatial. Despite requests from the EEA-TF little or no attempt was made to prioritise this and thus focus on the important parts. Similarly little attempt was made to collect fundamental data first (e.g. national totals) and the remaining data later.
- Reluctance of experts to submit data that is not final or subject to revision. This is a particular problem with emission inventories as they are, by their nature, estimates. Thus many years can pass with experts perfecting the estimates while users have to wait. Even then, these perfected numbers are still estimates with, in some cases, large uncertainties. Another approach is to provide the best estimate that exists on a particular date. Provision can then be made for subsequent revision.
It is important to distinguish between technical problems that may delay the production of an inventory and structural or political limitations. The former may include the late supply of data collected by others e.g. road transport statistics, while the latter may involve the need to get agreement from various official bodies about the data. Some of the institutional problems which have occurred, e.g. delays in funding or contracts may be improved in Air Emissions 94 by the switch from a voluntary collaboration to a more structured framework of national focal points and national reference centres.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
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