4. International Commitments
This Section briefly summarises international commitments which require monitoring of inland waters and the scope of their application in terms of the countries committed to meeting their requirements.
Within the EEA area, many requirements for monitoring arise from the European Commission. However, there are also many other international commitments which make monitoring requirements. Both categories are addressed in this report.
4.1. EU legislation and policies
Since the foundation of the European Community, several directives have been introduced to protect the quality of water resources, many of which contain monitoring requirements for inland waters. With a few exceptions (see Table 4.1), all Member States are required to implement the requirements made in these directives. The new Member States, i.e. Austria, Finland and Sweden, and the new Länder in Germany have, in some cases, been granted extended periods for implementation. Norway and Iceland are not members of the EU and are therefore not bound to meet the requirements of the directives, however, they have signed the EEA agreement obliging them to respect environmental standards.
As previously mentioned, the requirements made in the directives have been designed largely independently from each other. The Commission has, however, taken some initiatives to harmonise monitoring and reporting requirements in the Exchange of Information Decision (77/795/EEC as amended by Decision 86/574/EEC), and in the Reporting Directive (91/692/EEC) as detailed in Council Decision (92/446/EEC).
In the Exchange of Information Decision, Member States are asked to use a common procedure to exchange the results on the quality of fresh surface waters. It specifies measuring stations (covering the main rivers in each Member State), a list of determinands to be monitored, as well as, briefly, methods of analysis. It also recommends intercalibration exercises and gives a simple format for the data to be reported (unit and significant figures).
The Reporting Directive requires the use of standard questionnaires (as provided in Council Decision (92/446/EEC)) as a framework within which reports are to be submitted to the Commission, mainly on the implementation of certain EU directives. The objective is to achieve harmonised information on the monitoring undertaken in respect of EU directives rather than to harmonise monitoring requirements.
Table 4.1 European legislation requiring monitoring of inland waters
|Legislation||Dates of formal compliance||Exceptions|
|Surface Watera Directive (75/440/EEC)||18/06/77||
|Sampling and Analysis of Surface Watera Directive (79/869/EEC)||11/10/81||
|Bathing Waterb Directive (76/160/EEC)||10/12/77||
|Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC)||ns||
|Mercury from Chlor-alkali Directive (82/176/EEC)||01/07/83||
|Mercury from other Sectors Directive (84/156/EEC)||12/03/86||
|Cadmium Directive (83/513/EEC)||28/09/85||
|Hexachlorocyclohexane Directive (84/491/EEC)||01/04/86||
|Carbon tetrachloride Directive (86/280/EEC)||01/01/88||
|Aldrin, etc. Directive (88/347/EEC)||01/01/89||
|Dichloroethane, etc. Directive (90/415/EEC)||01/01/92||
|Titanium Dioxide Directive (82/883/EEC)||03/12/84||
|Freshwater Fishb Directive (78/659/EEC)||20/07/80||
|Shellfishb Directive (79/923/EEC)||05/11/81||
|Groundwaterc Directive (80/58/EEC)||19/12/81||
|Drinking Waterd Directive (80/778/EEC)||17/07/82||
|Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)||30/06/93||
|Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC)||19/12/93||
|Exchange of Information Decisions (77/95/EEC) (86/574/EEC)||12/06/78||
|Report Format Decisione (92/446/EEC)||
a Monitoring only at list of sampling stations
b Monitoring only in designated areas
c No specific monitoring requirements as such although some site specific investigation sampling may be required for purposes of identifying the appropriate control measures and auditing their effectiveness
d Initial analysis of source waters to be carried out before exploitation and to investigate problems and resolve pollution during exploitation
e No monitoring requirement but harmonised format for reporting results of monitoring of several directives
NI Northern Ireland
ns Not specified
NVZs Nitrate vulnerable zones
At the time of submitting this report it should be noted that the information on monitoring requirements had not been validated by the Walloon and Brussels regions of Belgium.
A brief summary of the objectives for each directive is given in Table 4.2 below.
Table 4.2 Summary of objectives and purposes of European legislation
|Surface Water Directive (75/440/EEC)||Classifies sources
of surface water for abstraction of drinking water by their existing quality into 3
categories corresponding to 3 standard methods of treatment.
Two purposes: to ensure that surface water used as drinking water reaches certain standards and is given adequate treatment and thereby to improve rivers or other surface waters used as sources for drinking water.
|Sampling of Surface Water Directive (79/869/EEC)||Recommends methods of measuring determinands for surface waters used as sources for drinking water (not mandatory) in terms of precision and accuracy. The frequency of such measurements is set by Member States based on minimum frequencies specified in the Directive. These frequencies increase as the quality (category) of surface water decreases and as the population served increases.|
|Bathing Water Directive (76/160/EEC)||Sets standards for bathing water (fresh or sea water) quality during the bathing season in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological determinands. Monitoring requirements are defined in terms of minimum frequency, location and reference methods for analysis.|
|Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC)||Requires the elimination or reduction of pollution of inland, coastal and territorial waters by particularly dangerous substances (List I and List II). Subsequent daughter directives set standards (limit values and quality objectives) for particular substances. Discharges of both List I and List II substances are to be subject to prior authorisation. For List II, pollution reduction programmes must be implemented and results of implementation must be communicated to the Commission. For List I, inventories of all discharges must be reported.|
values for different types of processes or industrial sectors which must be met in 2
stages and quality objectives for various types of waters (inland surface water,
estuaries, coastal and territorial and water abstracted for drinking water) and sometimes
Areas affected by discharges must be identified by Member States and monitored to ensure that quality objectives are met. A standstill provision applies for concentration in sediment, fish and shellfish.
|Titanium Dioxide Directive (82/883/EEC)||Establishes procedures for surveillance and monitoring required under Directive 78/176/EEC to prevent and reduce pollution caused by waste from the titanium dioxide industry. It covers monitoring of air, salt water, freshwater, storage and dumping on land and injection into soil.|
|Freshwater Fish Directive (78/659/EEC)||Sets quality objectives for designated fresh waters in order to support fish life. Two types of waters are to be designated those suitable for: salmonids; and cyprinids. Objectives are based on physical and chemical determinands. Minimum monitoring frequencies and some reference methods for analysis are given.|
Table 4.2 continued
|Shellfish Waters Directive (79/923/EEC)||Sets quality objectives for designated coastal and brackish waters in order to support shellfish. These are based on physical, chemical and microbiological determinands. Minimum monitoring frequencies are given. A separate directive (91/492/EEC) is concerned with protecting consumers of shellfish.|
|Groundwater Directive (80/68/EEC)||Aims to protect exploitable groundwater sources of drinking water from direct and indirect discharge of dangerous substances (Lists I and II). Prior investigations must be carried out prior to authorisation of a discharge and the effect of discharges on groundwater must be monitored.|
|Drinking Water Directive (80/778/EEC)||Sets standards for the quality of water intended for human consumption. Regular quality monitoring is to be carried by Member States to check compliance with the standards at the point where the water is made available to the consumer. Frequency increases with the size of the population supplied. Reference methods of analysis are given. Only some determinands have to be checked as an initial analysis before a source is exploited.|
|Urban Waste Water Treatment (UWWT) Directive (91/271/EEC)||Aims to reduce pollution of freshwater, estuarine and coastal waters by urban waste water, some industrial waste water and run-off waters. It sets minimum standards for collection and treatment of urban waste water and a timetable for implementation. Bans sewage sludge disposal at sea. It requires Member States to designate areas sensitive to waste water pollution where a higher level of treatment must be applied and to identify less sensitive areas where standards can be lower while monitoring that no adverse effect is taking place. Any receiving water must be monitored where negative effects might be expected.|
|Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC)||Aims to reduce or prevent water pollution due to the application and storage of fertiliser and manure on farmland so as to protect drinking water supplies and to prevent eutrophication of fresh and marine waters. Member States must designate waters actually or potentially affected by pollution from nitrates as vulnerable zones (VZ). For the purpose of designating and reviewing VZ, a one-year monitoring programme is to be undertaken and repeated every 4-8 years. Every 4 years, the eutrophic state of freshwaters, estuaries and coastal waters is also to be reviewed. Reference methods of measurement are given. Every 4 years (beginning June 1996), a report is to be forwarded to the Commission.|
|Exchange of Information Decisions (77/795/EEC) (86/574/EEC)||Establishes a common procedure for the exchange of information on the quality of surface freshwater. Requires monitoring for specified water quality determinands at specific measuring stations (covering the main rivers in each Member State). Results of monitoring must be submitted to the Commission. Reference methods of analysis are given.|
4.1.2. Other policies
There are other policies instigated within the EU that have or will have a potential effect on the monitoring requirements of water resources in the EEA area. These are briefly outlined below.
Groundwater action and water management programme
A Ministerial seminar held at the Hague in 1991, on the long term deterioration of the quality and quantity of water resources, emphasised the special significance of groundwater in the water cycle and in ecosystems, and as a source for drinking water. As a result the European Council called for Community Action and required that a detailed action programme be drawn up for comprehensive protection and management of groundwater as part of an overall policy on water protection. This led to a draft proposal for a groundwater action and water management programme (GAP) which requires a programme of actions to be implemented by the year 2000 at both national and EU levels, aiming at sustainable management and protection of freshwater resources. The draft proposal develops the basic quality standards for groundwater adding at the same time a quantitative dimension to water management. National action programmes should aim for full implementation by 2000 and should address elements such as mapping and monitoring of quality and quantity of freshwater resources, identification and designation of protection zones for areas of particular ecological interest and sensitivity, including present and future resources for drinking water and other resources. Water quality and quantity should be appropriately monitored in order to provide Member States with sufficient information to allow them to follow developments in the quality and quantity of aquifers and in particular to detect early signs of deterioration from leaching of dangerous substances towards groundwater reservoirs
Fifth environmental action programme
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro focused the worlds attention on the need to promote environmentally sustainable development. Agenda 21 was one of the agreements arising from the Rio Conference and sets out a comprehensive programme of actions for achieving sustainable development, sector by sector for the next century. National strategies and action plans are the key to the implementation of Agenda 21. The fifth environmental action programme, published in March 1992, represents an important starting point for the implementation of Agenda 21 in the EU.
The fifth environmental action programme stated that community policies must aim at:
- preventing pollution of fresh and marine surface waters and groundwater with particular emphasis on prevention at source;
- restoring natural ground and surface waters to an ecologically sound condition, thus ensuring a suitable source for extraction of drinking water; and,
- ensuring that water demand and water supply are brought into equilibrium on the basis of more rational use and management of water resources.
Long term to be achieved by the year 2000 are also given. These are in line with the programme of action outlined in the Hague Declaration and the subsequent GAP. The objectives of these targets include for groundwater: the maintenance of uncontaminated aquifers; the prevention of further contamination of contaminated aquifers; and, the restoration of contaminated aquifers for drinking water. For surface freshwaters the objective is to maintain a high ecological quality with a biodiversity corresponding as much as possible to the unperturbed state of a given water and for marine waters, a reduction of discharges of all environmentally hazardous substances to levels consistent with high standards of ecological quality. For marine waters there is also an action for surveillance of geographic zones with appropriate monitoring techniques. It is also likely that specific monitoring would be required in order to achieve the other objectives, particularly for groundwater where relatively little monitoring is apparently undertaken at present.
The Dobrí report
The Pan European Conference of Environment Ministers held at Dobrí Castle in 1991 called for the preparation of a State of the Environment report for Europe and invited the European Commission to take responsibility for the work. This request recognised the need for the compilation of reliable and comparable data in order develop effective policies for Europes environment.
The report identified a number of important and significant information gaps. In particular, the report noted:
- the absence of regional water resource statistics so that the present rates and trends of water abstraction by source and economic sectors are poorly known;
- an almost complete lack of comparable and reliable data on groundwater quantity and quality;
- a lack of comparable and reliable data on surface water quality across Europe making a comparison very difficult, in particular data were lacking on small rivers and lakes, whilst data on organic micropollutants, metals and radioactivity were patchy and incomplete. Biological assessments of river quality are carried out using a variety of methods and hence were not comparable;
- there is no pan-European water quality database either for freshwater or for marine water and reporting schemes differ markedly between countries;
- with regard to marine waters and seas there is very little comparable data on water quality and biology available for the White sea and Barents sea, and estimates of pollutants loads from different human activities and natural sources in general are not available; and,
- there is also a need for a unified procedure for estimating land-based emissions to seas so that comparison of contaminant load estimates between different seas can be made.
The Dobrí report noted problems associated with the aquatic environment in Europe (not only the EEA area but also eastern Europe). These included water scarcity problems in southern European countries, over-exploitation of groundwater (65% of Europes population is supplied from groundwater), nitrate problems in north-western Europe, pesticides in soil water, river and lake eutrophication and acidification of rivers and lakes. It also defined European prominent environmental problems which have potential implications on the monitoring required (or at least the data and information required) to define and assess temporal and spatial differences. Those that effect water resources include: climate change (effects on hydrological cycle, sea level rise, salination of freshwaters, effects on aquatic ecosystems); acidification (effects on lakes, rivers and streams); and, the management of freshwater (water availability, water quality, groundwater pollution, eutrophication, organic pollution (including pathogens), acidification, physical changes).
4.2. Other international agreements
There are a large number of international agreements concerning surface waters, however, not all of these make monitoring requirements (see Appendix A.2). Many agreements aim to protect a specific water body and are made between countries within the catchment of that water body. For large rivers and seas this can involve many countries, for example, the agreements made at the North Sea Conferences are made between all countries bordering the North Sea, i.e., Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. By contrast, there are many agreements which exist between just two countries. Thus the scope of application for international commitments varies greatly. For the purposes of this report, they have been divided into three categories:
- multi-national commitments, i.e. between three or more EEA countries;
- international commitments where more than one party has signed the EEA agreement; and,
- international commitments where only one party has signed the EEA agreement.
Harmonisation with the latter type of agreement may be difficult because of the differing priorities of parties outside of the EEA area. This review therefore concentrates on the first two categories.
A brief summary of the objectives for those agreements which require monitoring and which fall into category A, i.e. involving three or more EEA countries, is given in Table 4.3. A list of all international agreements which require monitoring is given in Table 4.4 which also indicates the countries obliged to meet the requirements laid down.
There are also other international organisations that some, if not all, EEA Member States are members of, or co-operate with, that either instigate monitoring programmes, or collect, collate, report and disseminate national monitoring data and information. These are discussed briefly below and the objectives of those which make monitoring requirements are summarised in Table 4.3.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has developed a questionnaire on the State of the Environment which since 1988 has been jointly presented with that from EUROSTAT. Before 1992 the OECD concentrated on water abstraction and water consumption (with little breakdown by activities), pollution connected to sewage treatment plants, total polluted water discharged (without reference to its origin), and data on surface water quality for sample stations at the borders of Member States. In addition, EUROSTAT collects data on water quality indicators for selected rivers and lakes. In the last revision of the now joint EUROSTAT/OECD questionnaire on inland waters (during 1990-1991) more detailed questions on water resources and waste water treatment were added. In the questions concerning water abstraction, consumption and discharge, a limited breakdown into activities has been added and determinands have been redefined.
The United Nations established an Environment Programme (UNEP) to act as a focal point for environmental action and co-ordination within the United Nations system within which a Regional Seas Programme (now the Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme) was adopted in 1978.
An international group of experts, GESAMP, sponsored by the United Nations, collects monitoring data and information from different states so that it can to report on, and assess, current marine environmental quality issues and provide scientific advice on marine pollution problems to the sponsoring agencies and to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (unece) has promoted international co-operation on water issues for over four decades. To meet the dual challenges of sustainable use of water and maintenance of acceptable environmental quality, the unece has adopted a number of declarations and decisions resulting from the work of its committee on water problems. These declarations and decisions are intended to provide guidance to UNECE member governments in formulating and implementing water management policies and should assist in fostering co-operation among unece Member States. The unece has recently developed (1992) the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. The Convention has been signed by 25 European countries as well as by the EU, and will come into force 90 days after it has been ratified by 16 of these countries. The European Commission has made a proposal for a Council Decision (COM(93)271 final), which, if adopted would ratify the Unions signature of the Convention. The Convention will require establishment of programmes for monitoring the conditions of transboundary waters, surface and groundwaters.
The Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution also has monitoring activities for water in two subgroups, namely:
- surface water: international co-operative programme on acidification of lakes and rivers (ICP-Waters);
- surface and groundwater: international co-operative programme on integrated monitoring of ecosystem effects (ICP Integrated monitoring).
Table 4.3 Summary of objectives and purposes on international agreements between three or more EEA countries
|Moselle 1961||Established an international commission for the protection of the Moselle against pollution through collaboration between the competent authorities of the three signatory governments (D,F,Lu). The Commission should: prepare and carry out necessary research to determine the nature, importance and origin of pollution and put the results of such research to use; and, propose to signatory governments measures capable of protecting the Moselle against pollution.|
|North East Atlantic (Oslo Convention) 1972 a||Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft. One of the Tasks of the Commission that administers the Convention is to review generally the condition of the sea within the Convention area. The contracting parties must also harmonise their policies and introduce, individually and together, measures to prevent pollution of the sea by dumping by or from ships and aircraft.|
|North East Atlantic (Paris Convention) 1974 a||Represents the second step taken by the maritime states bordering the North East Atlantic in combating pollution of the marine environment of that region. It followed on from the Oslo Convention which deals with the control of pollution of the seas by the dumping of harmful substances. It introduced two lists of substances for control, the Black and Grey Lists. Contracting countries are obliged to eliminate pollution by substances on the Black List and limit pollution by substances on the Grey List. This approach was later adopted in EU legislation. The Convention is administered by a Commission (PARCOM) which requires, amongst other things, marine environmental monitoring to be undertaken. A Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) was established with the Oslo Commission in 1987.|
|Baltic Sea (Helsinki Convention) 1974/1992||The original Convention was signed in 1974 by 7 states and covered pollution of the Baltic Sea from land, air and water. Recent political changes have enabled the Convention to be re-drafted (in 1992) to reflect advances in pollution control as well as the expansion in the number of countries (13 and the EU) that now have an impact on the Baltic. The new Convention requires the use of best available technology to control point sources and the use of best environmental practice to control diffuse inputs. It also places greater emphasis on controlling riverine inputs of pollutants. A Baltic Monitoring Programme has been established to follow the long term changes and trends of selected determinands in the Baltic ecosystem.|
|Mediterranean (Barcelona Convention) 1976||Mediterranean Action
Plan (MAP) (Phase I 1975 - 1980) leading to the long term Mediterranean Pollution and
Monitoring and Research Programme (MEDPOL). Phase II (1981-), included monitoring at four
levels: sources of pollution; near shore areas; offshore areas; and, atmospheric transport
MEDPOL monitoring started in 1983 through the implementation of National Monitoring Programmes and at present 16 countries have on-going programmes and are submitting data.
Table 4.3 continued
|Rhine 1976||In 1950, the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution (ICPR) was founded in Basle. In 1963, the International Convention (Bern Convention) detailed the tasks of the ICPR which include monitoring the state of the Rhine and preparing international conventions on chemical pollution (Rhine Convention 1976), chlorides (Bonn Convention 1976 and 1991) and thermal pollution (ICPRs work in this field is now ended). In 1987, the Rhine countries as well as the ICPR elaborated a comprehensive action programme, the Rhine Action Programme (RAP) which defined targets to be achieved by the year 2000. The ICPR has a monitoring programme which is revised regularly, the latest was published in July 1994 for 1995.|
|Rhine (hydrology) 1989||This Commission was founded in 1970 by regional co-operation of the national International Hydrological Decade (IHD) committees within the framework of the United Nations Educational and Social Organisation (UNESCO) IHD programme. The Commission later (1975) also worked within the framework of the Operational Hydrological programme of the World Meteorological Organisation. Its tasks include supporting the co-operation of scientific hydrological institutes and hydrological services, promoting the exchange of data and information, and standardising data bases and the exchange of results on hydrological research in the Rhine basin.|
|North Sea (conference) 1990||Establishes a common list of 36 dangerous substances, referred to as the North Sea Conference Common, or Annex IA, List. Signatories agreed to achieve significant reductions of these 36 substances and nutrients from rivers and estuaries to the North Sea by around 50% between 1985 and 1995.|
|North Sea (NSTF) 1987||Established following a Ministerial Declaration made at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea held in London in November 1987. Its aim was to enhance scientific knowledge and understanding of the North Sea environment, to provide more consistent and dependable data and to permit links between contaminant inputs, concentrations and effects to be established with greater confidence. A North Sea Task Force Monitoring Master Plan (MMP) has been developed which builds on the monitoring carried out under the Joint Monitoring Programmes (JMP) of the Oslo and Paris Commissions.|
|Arctic Sea (AMAP) 1993||At a Ministerial conference in Rovaniemi, Finland 1991, the Ministers from eight Arctic countries agreed to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. The primary objectives of the programme are the measurement of the levels of anthropogenic pollutants and assessment of their effects in relevant compartments of the Arctic environment. The assessment will include monitoring for fresh and marine waters and will be presented in status reports. As an initial priority, the AMAP will focus on persistent organic contaminants, selected heavy metals and elements and radionuclides. Ultimately, AMAP should include ecological indicators to provide a basis for the assessment of the status of the Arctic ecosystems.|
|North East Atlantic (OSPAR) 1992 a||This is a wide ranging agreement covering the North East Atlantic and many aspects of the marine environment including the dumping of waste, incineration, assessment of loads to the environment, and the impact of oil installations. The convention has replaced the agreements made in the Oslo and Paris Conventions. A monitoring and assessment programme (JAMP) is currently under preparation to replace the JMP.|
|Transboundary Waters 1992||This was developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to provide a mechanism for prevention of transboundary water pollution and rational use of water resources in Europe. The EU has signed the Convention although it has not yet been ratified by the Council. Once adopted the Convention requires monitoring of transboundary waters, surface and groundwaters, quality and quantity. Monitoring programmes have yet to be drafted.|
|Meuse 1994||The details of the associated monitoring programmes are being formulated.|
|Scheldt 1994||The details of the associated monitoring programmes are being formulated.|
Notes: 1 A list of the full names for international agreements is given in Appendix A, Table A.2
a The requirements for monitoring marine water quality under the Oslo Convention were consolidated with those of the Paris Convention in 1978 in the joint monitoring programme (JMP). This is dealt with under North Sea (Paris) 1974. The JMP will be superseded by the Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme (JAMP) in the future under OSPAR 1992.
Table 4.4 Summary of international agreements requiring monitoring of inland waters in the EEA area
|International Agreement 2||A||B*||D||Dk||E||F||Fi||Gr||I||Ic||Irl||L||N||NL||Pt||S||UK||EC||Others|
|A.2||North East Atlantic (Oslo) 1972b||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||-||-||X||X||-||X||X||X||X||X||-||-|
|A.3||Baltic Sea (Helsinki) 1974/1992||-||-||X||X||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||X||PO,RU,ES,LlLA,CZ,SL,UKR|
|A.4||North East Atlantic (Paris) 1974b||-||X||X||X||X||X||-||-||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||-|
|A.5||Mediterranean Sea (Barcelona) 1976||-||-||-||-||X||X||-||X||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-|
|A.6||Rhine 1976 a||-||-||X||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||X||-||-||-||X||CH|
|A.7||Rhine (hydrology) 1989|
|A.8||North Sea (conference) 1990||-||X||X||X||X1||X||X1||-||X1||-||X1||-||X||X||X1||X||X||X||CZ|
|A.9||North Sea (NSTF) 1987||-||X||X||X||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||X||-||X||X||-||-|
|A.10||Arctic Sea (AMAP) 1991||X1||X||X||X||X||X1||X||X1||C, USA, RU|
|A.11||North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) 1992b||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||-||-||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||CH|
|A.12||Transboundary Waters 1992c||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||-||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||-|
|B.1||Foyle Fisheries 1952||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-|
|B.2||Lake Inari 1959||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||RU|
|B.3||Lake Constance 1960||X||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|B.5||Lake Constance (water withdrawal) 1966||X||-||X-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|B.6||Frontier Rivers (Fi/S) 1971||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-|
|B.7||Boundary Waters (Fi/N) 1980||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|B.8||Danube (Bucharest) 1985||X||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||BU,CZ,SL,SV,HU,RO,
|B.9||Moselle (industry) 1986||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|B.10||Danube (Regensburg) 1987||X||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-|
|B.11||Elbe (Magdeburg) 1990||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||CZ,SL|
|B.12||Danube (Sofia) 1994||X||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||BU, CR, HU, MO, ROM ,SL, UKR|
|C.3||Lake Lugano 1955||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|C.4||Water Economy (Au/Hu) 1956||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||HU|
|C.5||Lake Geneva 1962||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|C.6||Frontier Waters (Fi/Ru) 1967||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||RU|
|C.7||Frontier Waters (Au/Cz) 1967||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CZ|
|C.8||Frontier Waters (Au/SI) 1970||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||SL|
|C.9||Italo-Swiss Waters 1972/86||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|C.12||Lake Geneva (navigation) 1976||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|C.13||Frontier Waters (I/Sv) 1978||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||SV|
|C.14||Lake Geneva (phosphorus) 1980||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||CH|
|C.15||Saimaa/ Vuoski 1989||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||USSR|
|C.16||Technical Co-operation (Bu/Gr) 1991||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||X||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|C.17||Black Sea 1992||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||BU, GE, RO, RU,TU,UKR|
Notes: A Multi-international convention, applicable to three or more EEA Member States.
B International convention applicable to two EEA Member States.
C International convention applicable to only one EEA Member State.
2 A list of the full names for international agreements is given in Appendix A, Table A.2
a In 1950, the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution (ICPR) was founded in Basle. In 1963, the International Convention (Bern Convention) detailed the tasks of the ICPR including monitoring the state of the Rhine and preparing international conventions on chemical pollution (Rhine Convention 1976), chlorides (Bonn Convention 1976 and 1991) and thermal pollution (ICPRs work in this field is now ended). In 1987, the Rhine bordering countries as well as the ICPR elaborated a comprehensive action programme, the Rhine Action Programme (RAP) which defined targets to be achieved by the year 2000. The ICPR has established a monitoring programme which is revised regularly, the latest has been published in July 1994 for 1995-programme.
b Monitoring under the Oslo and Paris Conventions was consolidated in 1987 in the JMP. The conventions will be replaced by OSPAR 1992 and a Joint Assessment and Monitoring Programme (JAMP) will be drafted to replace the JMP.
c When ratified by the European Council.
* Country which has not yet replied to MW1 questionnaire (Belgium, Brussels and Walloon regions).
A-Austria B-Belgium BU-Bulgaria C - Canada CH-Switzerland
CR- Croatia CZ-Czech Republic D-Germany DK-Denmark
E-Spain EC/EU-European Community/Union ES-Estonia
F-France Fi-Finland GE-Georgia GR-Greece HU-Hungary
I-Italy Ic-Iceland IRL-Ireland L-Luxembourg LA-Latvia
LI-Lithuania MO-Moldavia N-Norway NL-Netherlands Pt-Portugal
PO-Poland RO-Romania RU-Russia S-Sweden SL-Slovakia
SV-Slovenia TU-Turkey UK-United Kingdom UKR-Ukraine
USA - United States of America USSR- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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