6.3. Black smoke (BS)

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6.3. Black smoke (BS)

6.3.1. Behaviour, effects, emissions

(See under Suspended Particles, chapter 6.4.1.)

6.3.2. Air Quality Limits and Guide Values

EU Limit and Guide values for black smoke and WHO Guideline values for combined exposure to SO2 and particulate matter are given in Table 6.9 and Table 6.10.


Table 6.9: EU Limit and Guide Values for BS (black smoke) (µg/m3).
EU Council Directive 80/779/EEC.

Limit Values Median of 24h values Mean of
24h values
98 percentile of 24h values Maximum of 24h values
Year 80   2501)  
Winter (1.10-31.3) 130      
Guide Values        
Year   40-60   100-150

1) EU Member States must take all appropriate steps to ensure that this value is not exceeded for more than three consecutive days. Moreover, EU Member States must endeavour to prevent and to reduce any such instances in which this value has been exceeded.


Table 6.10: WHO Guideline values for Europe for combined exposure to SO2 and particulate matter (BS, TSP or TP) (WHO, 1987).

Substance Mean values for averaging time
24 h 1 year
SO2 125 50
BS1) 125 50
TSP2) 1203)  
TP4) 703)  

1) Black smoke

2) Total suspended particulates measured by high volume sampler without any size selection.

3) Value to be regarded as tentative at this stage.

4) Thoracic particles measured by a sampler having a 50% cut-off at 10 µm.


6.3.3. Urban and local black smoke concentrations

In Appendix B black smoke data from 10 countries are given. The stations are ranged according to the 98 percentile of 24h values. The stations with the highest values are given in Table 6.11. Also the maximum and median 24h values are given.

Figure 6.32 shows that black smoke concentrations in Sweden are lower than in other countries even though the measurements only cover the winter period which usually has the highest pollution level. Swedish stations are urban city centre stations, but they are located well away from traffic sources. They also are "above ceiling" stations. Black smoke levels in Norway, Denmark, Scotland and England are about the same. Maximum levels in Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Greece are higher. Black smoke levels in Athens are much higher than in the other cities.

Data from the selected cities in Figure 5.1/Table 5.2 are shown in Figure 6.33-Figure 6.36. These figures give the median, mean, 98 percentile and maximum values based on 24h values. Black smoke data are rather limited throughout Europe. Black smoke levels seem to be highest in Southern Europe, but again Eastern Europe data are missing.


Table 6.11: 24 h maximum, 98 percentile and median black smoke values for 1993 for European cities ranged according to the 98 percentile values (µg/m3). Swedish data cover the winter 1993/94.

 

Country

City Black smoke 24 h values
Name Class Station Maximum 98 percentile Median
Greece Athens 1 Patission 147 329 c 265   93
Spain Tenerife 4 Santa Cruz 367 m 238 1 78
Belgium Bruxelles 2 Maison Communale, Place du Conseil 149 3 149.0 3 26.5
Norway Trondheim 4 Torget 149 2 138 2 15
Belgium Bruxelles 2 30 rue Marche aux Chabon 179 3 134.4 3 22
United Kingdom Belfast 4 Belfast 12 Royal Victoria Hospital 235 1 133   14
Greece Athens 1 Pireas Platia Dimotikou 157 d 130   39
Belgium Bruxelles 2 3 rue Cortenbach, Police div. 10 174 3 126.6 3 25
The Netherlands Utrecht 4 Witte Vrouwenstraat 177 a 126   51
Belgium Gent 4 Abeelstraat, Politie Bur 152 3 120.0 3 25
Belgium Gent 4 Groothandelsmarkt 122 3 116.3 3 22
Belgium Gent 4 Kastel Speltink 153 3 113.8 3 22
France Marseille 3 Plombières 146   108   62
France Marseille 3 Rabatau 136   108   42
Belgium Gent 4 Sirt Kruisdorp 108 3 102.9 3 13
Ireland Cork 4 Market, Princes St. 159   98   14.5
Belgium Gent 4 Zwimbad, Purshaaf, Nimferstraat 102 3 97.9 3 22.5
Belgium Charleroi 4 505, Burcau C.A.P. 108 3 93 3 19
France Strasbourg 4 rue du 22 novembre     93    
France Marseille 3 Saint Marcel 112   93   36
Ireland Dublin 3 Rathmines 152   87.3   20
France Marseille 3 Timone 112   87   38
Greece Athens 1 Smyrni Cementry 118   86   19
Norway Drammen 5 Engene 113   86   30
Belgium Bruxelles 2 Maison Communale, Place Tomberg 89 3 85.9 3 14
Belgium Bruxelles 2 175 Av. de la Couronne 90 3 84.3 3 13.5
United Kingdom Belfast 4 Belfast 11 16 College st. 213   83   15
Belgium Charleroi 4 509, Hôtel de ville 109 3 82 3 19
Norway Oslo 3 St. Olavs square 134 1 77 1 15
Norway Fredrikstad 5 Broch street 103 2 77 2 22
Spain Bilbao 4 Lab. Sanidad 95   77   31
Belgium Liege 4 202, Ecole St. Sépulcre 212   75   15
France Paris 1 Paris Tour St-Jacques 125   75   22
United Kingdom Glasgow 2 23 Montrose st. 108   75   22
France Strasbourg 4 Aspa     74    
Belgium Antwerpen 3 Antwerpen School, Quellingstraat 83 3 69.9 3 26.5
Belgium Liege 4 218, Caserne Pompiers 139   68   21
The Netherlands Utrecht 4 Kard. de Jongweg 177   68   20
Spain Bilbao 4 Zorroza 103 2 68 2 20
Ireland Dublin 3 Mountjoy Square 95   66.3   12
Belgium Brugge 4 Ministerie Volksgezondheid 67 3 65.1 3 13
Spain Bilbao 4 Gecho 150   63   18
Belgium Antwerpen 3 Linkeroewer, Haleurinjnlaan 86 64 3 60.8 3 13
Ireland Dublin 3 Finglas, Corp. Amsing Dept 80   60   12
United Kingdom London 1 London City 16 109   59   21
United Kingdom Sheffield 3 Town Chambers 85 1 56 1 12
Belgium Liege 4 Université 87   53   10

Figure 6.32: 24 h maximum, 98 percentile and median black smoke values for 1993 for selected stations and cities (µg/m3). Swedish data cover the winter 1993/94.


Figure 6.33: Black smoke median 24h values in selected cities (µg/m3).


Figure 6.34: Black smoke mean values in selected cities (µg/m3).

Figure 6.35: Black smoke 98 percentile values based on 24h values in selected cities (µg/m3).


Figure 6.36: Black smoke maximum 24h values in selected cities (µg/m3).

Exceedances

Table 6.12 shows that one of the stations in Athens is the only one with exceedances of the EU Limit values for black smoke (median >80 µg/m3 and 98 percentile >250 µg/m3, 24h values).


Table 6.12: Exceedances of EU Limit Values for black smoke.

 

Country

 

City

 

Station name

1 year 1 year Winter
Median
>80
P98
>250
Median
>130
Greece Athens Patission 147 93 265  

Table 6.13 shows exceedances of EU Guide values and WHO Guideline values for combined exposure to SO2 and black smoke/particulate matter. Stations marked with * show exceedance of WHO Guideline values. Stations in bold show exceedance of the upper EU Guide value.

The table indicates that exceedances of these guide values are quite common in Europe. Black smoke values in parts of Germany and Eastern Europe may be even higher.

Table 6.13: Exceedances of EU and WHO Guide Values for Black Smoke.ble 6.13: Exceedan

Country City Station Mean > 40-60 Max. 24h > 100-150
Belgium Bruxelles 30 rue Marche aux Charbon   179*
    3 rue Cortenbach, Police div. 10   174*
    Maison Communale, Place du Conseil   149*
  Liege 202 Ecole St. Sépulcre   212*
    218 Caserne Pompiers   139*
  Charleroi 505, Burrau C.A.P.   108
    509, Hôtel de ville   109
  Gent Kastel Speltink   153*
    Groot handelsmarkt   122
    Abulstraat, Politie Bur.   152*
    Zwiimbad, Purshaaf Nimenstraat   102
    Sirt Kruisdorp   108
France Marseille Timone 41 112
    Plombières 62* 146*
    Rabateau 45 136*
    Saint Marcel 41 112
  Paris Paris Tour St.-Jacques   125*
Greece Athens Patission 147 108* 329*
    Pireas Platia Dimotikou 46 157*
    Smyrni Cementry   118
Ireland Dublin Rathmines   152*
  Cork Market, Princes St.   159*
The Netherlands Ligging voor Achtergrondmetingen Pompstation-Braakman   103
  Utrecht Witte Vrouwenstraat 53.6* 177*
    Kard. de Jongweg   177*
Norway Oslo St. Olav Square   134*
  Bergen CMI   108
  Trondheim Torget   149*
  Drammen Engene   113
  Fredrikstad Broch street   103
  Skien Kings street   118
Spain Bilbao Gecho   150*
  Tenerife Santa Cruz 103.7*  
United Kingdom Belfast Royal Victoria Hospital   235*
    Belfast 11, 16 College St.   213*
  London London city 16   109
  Glasgow 23 Montrose St.   108

Mean: *) > 50 WHO Guidelines
Max: *) > 125 WHO Guidelines


Trends

Figure 6.37-Figure 6.40 show trends in black smoke data on an annual basis for selected stations in different countries. The figures show the maximum, 98 percentile and median of 24 h data from Norway, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and Greece.

Median values seem to show a slightly decreasing trend at most stations. Maximum and 98 percentile values show more variability from year to year, especially in Belfast, Charleroi and Bilbao. Black smoke levels in Athens are much higher than in other cities.


Figure 6.37: Black smoke trend in Norway 1977-1993 (µg/m3). Data from national reports.


Figure 6.38: Black smoke trend in Belfast and London City, UK 1976-1993. APIS data.


Figure 6.39: Black smoke trend in Utrecht, the Netherlands 1990-1994 and Charleroi, Belgium 1975-1994. APIS data.


Figure 6.40: Black smoke trend in Bilbao, Spain 1986-1993 and Athens, Greece 1985-1993 (µg/m3). APIS data.

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