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You are here: Home / Environmental policy document catalogue / Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997

Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

The link address is: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php

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Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite, oil, nuclear, natural and derived gas, renewables (wind. hydro. biomass and waste. solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations. The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result. Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).
Production, sales and emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) Production, sales and emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of the following fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), differentiated by HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 . HFCs PFCs SF6 HFC-23 CF4   HFC-32 C2F6   HFC-41 C3F8   HFC-43-10mee C4F10   HFC-125 c-C4F8   HFC-134 C5F12   HFC-134a C6F14   HFC-152a     HFC-143     HFC-143a     HFC-227ea     HFC-236fa     HFC-245ca     The indicator also tracks trends since 2007 in the aggregated production, bulk imports, bulk exports and consumption of F-gases, differentiated, where available by HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 ; additional F-gases compared to the emissions list are marked in bold. HFCs PFCs SF6 HFC-23 CF4   HFC-32 C2F6   HFC-41 C3F8   HFC-43-10mee C4F10   HFC-125 c-C4F8   HFC-134 C5F12   HFC-134a C6F14   HFC-152a     HFC-143     HFC-143a     HFC-227ea     HFC-236cb     HFC-236ea     HFC-236fa     HFC-245ca     HFC-245fa     HFC-365mfc     ‘Net supply’ is a parameter derived from company reporting under the F-Gas Regulation that provides information on the actual use of (bulk) F-gases by EU industries. Net supply is calculated by firstly adding reported amounts for: production imports (bulk imports only, imports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation) stocks held on 1 January of the reporting year ‘other amounts collected for reclamation or destruction from within the EU’, and then subtracting the following reported amounts: exports (bulk exports only, exports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation) destruction (on-site by reporting companies and off-site within the EU on reporting companies’ behalf) amounts used as feedstock by reporting companies stocks held on 31 December of the reporting year.   Furthermore, the shares of intended applications of F-gas net supply in the latest available reporting year are given, differentiating between refrigeration and air-conditioning fire protection aerosols foams electrical equipment and other, unknown or no information reported.
Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions Energy and non-energy related greenhouse gas emissions Annual emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFC, PFC and SF 6 in UNFCCC reporting format (In Mt = million tonnes) converted to their global warming potential (100 year time horizon) for addition and comparison with the Kyoto Protocol targets (1 t CH 4 = 21 t CO 2 -equivalent, 1 t N 2 O = 310 t CO2-equivalent, 1 t SF 6 = 23 900 t CO 2 -equivalent. HFCs and PFCs have a wide range of GWPs depending on the gas and emissions are already reported in t CO 2 -equivalent). For CO 2 only, the (national) totals do not include emissions from biomass burning or emissions or removals from land-use change and forestry (LUCF). The energy sector is responsible for energy-related emissions, such as those arising from fuel combustion activities and fugitive emissions from fuels. Fuel combustion activities include: energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, other sectors and other stationary or mobile emissions from fuel combustion. Fugitive emissions from fuels include: solid fuels and oil and natural gas. ’Energy production’ includes ‘Energy industries’ (i.e. public electricity and heat production, petroleum refining and the manufacture of solid fuels) and ‘Fugitive emissions’  (i.e. emissions from production, processing, transmission, storage and use of fuels, in particular coal-mining and gas production). ’Transport’ includes road transportation, national civil aviation, railways and navigation, and other non-road transportation. In accordance with UNFCCC and UNECE guidelines, emissions from international aviation and navigation are not included. ’Industry’ includes fossil fuel combustion (for heat and electricity) in manufacturing industries and construction (such as iron and steel, and non-ferrous metals). ‘Households’ includes fossil fuel combustion in households. ’Services sector’ includes fossil fuel combustion (for heat and electricity) from small commercial businesses, public institutions, agricultural businesses and military. Non-energy related emissions include ‘Industry’ (i.e. processes in manufacturing industries and construction without fossil fuel combustion including production and consumption of fluorinated gases), ‘Agriculture’ (i.e. domestic livestock (dairy and non-dairy cattle) keeping, in particular manure management and enteric fermentation and emissions from soils) ‘Waste’ (i.e. waste management facilities, in particular landfill sites and incineration plants and ‘Other non-energy’ (i.e. solvent and other product use).
Projections of GHG emissions - outlooks from National Communications under UNFCCC Projections of GHG emissions - outlooks from National Communications under UNFCCC Definition: This indicator illustrates the projected trends in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the Kyoto Targets. Greenhouse gas emissions (total) refer to the sum of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perflourocarbons (PFCs), hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), weighted using their 100-year global warming potentials. National totals exclude emissions from natural resources and international bunker fuel emissions. The indicator also provides information on emissions from the main greenhouse gas emitting sectors: energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors); transport; industry (processes); agriculture; waste and other (non-energy). Model used: N/A Ownership: European Environment Agency Temporal coverage: 1990 - 2020 (SEE: no data for AL, BA and CS; EECCA: no data for TJ all years, no data for MO for 2000, no data for AM, GE, TM, UZ, UA for 2020, for which 2010 figures are used for AM, GE, TM, UZ and 2015 for UA.). Geographical coverage: EU 15 : Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom; EU 10 : Cyprus, Czech republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia; SEE: Bulgaria, Croatia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Turkey; EECCA: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Canada, US
GHG emissions - outlook from MNP GHG emissions - outlook from MNP Definition: This indicator illustrates the projected trends in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the EU and Member State targets, using existing policies and measures and/or additional policies and/or use of Kyoto mechanisms. The greenhouse gases are those covered by the Kyoto Protocol (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs and PFCs), weighed by their respective global warming potential, aggregated and presented in CO 2 -equivalent units. The indicator also provides information on emissions from the main greenhouse gas emitting sectors: energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors); transport; industry (processes); agriculture; waste and other (non-energy). Model used: IMAGE Ownership: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) Temporal coverage: 1990 - 2100  Geographical coverage: OECD Europe: Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Eastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia; Former USSR: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; South Asia: Afganistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; East Asia: China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Macau, Mongolia, Taiwan; Canada, USA
CC_F03: GHG emissions - outlook from IIASA CC_F03: GHG emissions - outlook from IIASA Definition: This indicator illustrates the projected trends in national emissions of all greenhouse gases emissions for a selected scenario (combination of energy pathway and emissions control strategy), including current policy legislation and optimized scenarios. Greenhouse Gasses include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perflourocarbons (PFCs), hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The indicator also provides information on emissions from the main greenhouse gas emitting sectors: energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors); transport; industry (processes); agriculture; waste and other (non-energy). Model used: GAINS/RAINS, EMEP Ownership: International Institute for Applied Systems Temporal coverage: 1990 - 2030 Geographical coverage:  EU-27: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Cyprus, Czech republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia; By country: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Check Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany. Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal. Republic of Moldova, Romania. Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Swetzerland, TFYR of Mathedonia, Turkey, Ukriane, United Kingdom
Greenhouse gas emission trends Greenhouse gas emission trends This indicator presents anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Europe from 1990 onwards. It analyses the trends (total and by sector) in relation to the European Community and Member States Kyoto targets for the period 2008-2012. Definitions (from UNFCCC) Emissions: the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time. Greenhouse gases: those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation. Sink: any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. Source: any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases are calculated according to the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (see Methodology ), as agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. Scope Gases All the greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, SF 6 , HFCs and PFCs). This does not include the greenhouse gases that are also ozone-depleting substances and which are controlled by the Montreal Protocol (see CSI 006 ). In order to be aggregated, non-CO 2 gases are weighed by their respective global warming potential and presented in CO 2 -equivalent units. Emission sources The indicator provides information on emissions from the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas sources, distributed by main emitting sectors (according IPCC nomenclature): energy supply and use (including energy industry, fugitive emissions, energy use by industry and by other sectors, excluding the transport sector); transport; industry (processes, i.e. not including emissions from fossil fuel combustion for energy use); agriculture; waste; other (non-energy). Unless otherwise mentioned, the indicator does not cover emissions from international bunkers (international aviation and maritime transport), which are not covered by the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, these emissions are not taken into account in the total greenhouse gas emissions reported at national and EU levels. Emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) are not included in total greenhouse gas emissions. Geographical area The indicator covers all 27 Member States from the European Union. Some figures also include information concerning other EEA Member States. Period covered The indicator covers annual emissions since 1990.

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