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You are here: Home / Environmental policy document catalogue / COM(2008) 778

COM(2008) 778

Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778

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Overview of the European energy system Overview of the European energy system Energy flows in European Union The Sankey diagram (Fig.1) shows the energy conversion from primary energy (coal, oil, natural gas, etc) to secondary energy commodities such as heat, electricity and manufactured fuels, through transformation plants (power stations, district heating, CHPs, oil refineries and other transformation plants) and the associated conversion losses. The right hand side of the diagram shows the final mix of energy consumption by different EU27 energy users (including: industry, transport, domestic, other final consumers and non-energy use). Note that renewables in transport for ENER 36 include all biofuels whether sustainable or not. Only a proportion of the primary energy entering the energy system of a country flows through to the end user for consumption.  There are various diversions and losses incurred before energy reaches the final consumer due to distribution losses and use in the energy sector. The Sankey diagram is useful in capturing the situation in a certain year but other indicators are needed to show the change in energy use over time. Energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity and heat production Output from conventional thermal stations consists of gross electricity generation and also of any heat sold to third parties (combined heat and power plants) by conventional thermal public utility power stations as well as autoproducer thermal power stations. The energy efficiency of conventional thermal electricity production (which includes both public plants and autoproducers) is defined as the ratio of electricity and heat production to the energy input as a fuel. Fuels include solid fuels (i.e. coal, lignite and equivalents, oil and other liquid hydrocarbons, gas, thermal renewables (industrial and municipal waste, wood waste, biogas and geothermal energy) and other non-renewable waste. Units: Fuel input and electrical and heat output are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Efficiency is measured as the ratio of fuel output to input (%) Energy losses in transformation and distribution Numerator: Share of energy losses is the sum of own consumption of the energy industry, distribution losses and transformation losses (difference between transformation input and output). Denominator: Numerator plus final energy available for final consumption in primary energy. EU-27 Share of primary energy by fuel type and, share of final energy consumption by sector Total energy consumption or gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year (Fig.2). Units: Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage. EU27 net energy imports of solid fuels, oil, and gas from outside the EU27 was calculated as follows: total imports by fuel minus the sum of imports by fuel from other EU Member States minus total exports (Fig.1)
Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe Overview of the electricity production and use in Europe Total gross electricity generation covers gross electricity generation in all types of power plants. The gross electricity generation at the plant level is defined as the electricity measured at the outlet of the main transformers. i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. Electricity production by fuel is the gross electricity generation from plants utilising the following fuels: coal and lignite, oil, nuclear, natural and derived gas, renewables (wind. hydro. biomass and waste. solar PV and geothermal) and other fuels. The latter include electricity produced from power plants not accounted for elsewhere such as those fuelled by certain types of industrial wastes which are not classed as renewable. Other fuels also include the electricity produced as a result of pumping in hydro power stations. The share of each fuel in electricity production is taken as the ratio of electricity production from the relevant category against total gross electricity generation. It should be noted that the share of renewable electricity in this indicator, based on production, is not directly comparable with the share required under Directive 2001/77/EC which is based upon the share of renewables in electricity consumption. The difference between both shares is accounted for by the net balance between imports and exports of electricity and by how much domestic electricity generation is increased or reduced as a result. Final electricity consumption covers electricity supplied to the final consumer's door for all energy uses, it does not include own use by electricity producers or transmission and distribution losses. It is calculated as the sum of final electricity consumption from all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services (including agriculture and other sectors).
Final energy consumption intensity Final energy consumption intensity   Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, and services and agriculture. Total final energy intensity is defined as total final energy consumption (consumption of transformed energy such as electricity, publicly supplied heat, refined oil products, coke, etc., and the direct use of primary fuels such as gas or renewables, e.g. solar heat or biomass) divided by gross domestic product (GDP) at constant 2005 prices. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2005. Household energy intensity is defined as household final energy consumption divided by population. Transport energy intensity is defined as transport final energy consumption divided by GDP at constant 2005 prices. Industry energy intensity is defined as industry final energy consumption divided by industry Gross Value Added at constant 2005 prices. This excludes final energy consumption and gross value added from construction.  Services energy intensity is defined as services final energy consumption divided by services Gross Value Added at constant 2005 prices. Value added of services is the sum of 3 value added : G_H_I : Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport, storage and communication, J_K - Financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities and L_TO_P - Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons
Final energy consumption intensity Final energy consumption intensity   Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, and services and agriculture. Total final energy intensity is defined as total final energy consumption (consumption of transformed energy such as electricity, publicly supplied heat, refined oil products, coke, etc, and the direct use of primary fuels such as gas or renewables, e.g. solar heat or biomass) divided by gross domestic product (GDP) at constant 2000 prices. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2000. Household energy intensity is defined as household final energy consumption divided by population. Transport energy intensity is defined as transport final energy consumption divided by GDP at constant 2000 prices. Industry energy intensity is defined as industry final energy consumption divided by industry Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. This excludes final energy consumption and gross value added from construction.  Services energy intensity is defined as services final energy consumption divided by services Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. Value added of services is the sum of 3 value added : G_H_I : Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport, storage and communication, J_K - Financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities and L_TO_P - Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons

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