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Figure Availability improvements in nuclear power plants in Europe
Last three years Capability Factor over 2008-2010. The indicator shows the ratio of the available energy generation over a given time period to the reference energy generation over the same time period, expressed as a percentage. Both of these energy generation terms are determined relative to reference ambient conditions. The reference energy generation is the energy that could be produced if the unit were operated continuously at full power under reference ambient conditions. The available energy generation is the energy that could have been produced under reference ambient conditions considering only limitations within control of plant management, i.e. plant equipment and personnel performance, and work control.
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Figure Availability improvements in nuclear power plants in Europe
Since very few new nuclear power plants have come online since 1990 and several plants in UK, Lithuania, Germany, Sweden, Slovakia and Bulgaria have been shut down (WNA, 2009), these trends illustrate increased plant availability in the past decades (see Figure 4 below) and increases in net plant electric efficiency from app. 32% to app. 35% (WNA, 2003).
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Figure Average annual change in final energy and electricity consumption in EU Member States between 1990-2003
The change in Germany refers to 1991-2003.
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Figure Average annual change in final energy and electricity consumption in EU-27, 2005
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Figure Average annual change in total energy consumption by fuel, EU-25
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Figure Average annual change in total primary energy consumption by fuel, EU-27
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Figure Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2006 and 2005-2006, EU-27
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Figure Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2008 and 2007-2008, EU-27
Since 1990, in the EU-27 the electricity consumption increased in the service sector (including agriculture) at an annual growth rate of 2.6 %. In total, the electricity consumption increased by 59.2 % between 1990 and 2008. The main reasons for increased electricity consumption in the service sector were the sustained growth of this sector throughout the EU, the increased use of electrical appliances (such as air conditioning, lighting or IT equipment) and the penetration of new electrical devices
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Figure Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007, EU-27
Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007, EU-27
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Figure Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2009, 2005-2009 and 2008-2009, EU-27
Average annual growth rate in electricity consumption by sector, 1990-2009, 2005-2009 and 2008-2009 in EU-27
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European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100