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Indicator Assessment Passenger transport demand
Passenger transport demand in the EU-28 increased by nearly 1.1 % between 2012 and 2013, after an overall downward trend since its peak in 2009. Car passenger travel remains the dominant transport mode, with a share well above 70 %. Air transport grew by 10 % in 2011, but stabilised in 2012 and 2013. However, it retained its pre-crisis modal share (9 %). The share of rail passenger travel has grown slightly in recent years, accounting for 6.6 % of transport demand in 2013. Land only passenger transport demand continued to grow in 2013 in the non-EU-28 countries, with Iceland experiencing 2.9 % growth, Turkey 3.2 %, Switzerland 1.6 % and Norway 1.3 %.  
Located in Data and maps Indicators Passenger transport demand
Indicator Assessment Oxygen consuming substances in rivers
Concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total ammonium have decreased in European rivers in the period 1992 to 2012 (Fig. 1), mainly due to general improvement in waste water treatment.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Oxygen consuming substances in rivers
Indicator Assessment Nutrients in freshwater
Since 2005, average nitrate concentrations in European groundwater have declined and in 2011, the mean concentration had almost returned to the 1992 level. The average nitrate concentration in European rivers declined by 0.03 milligrams per liter of nitrogen (mg N/l) (0.8%) per year over the period 1992 to 2012. The decline in nitrate concentration reflects the effect of measures to reduce agricultural inputs of nitrate, as well as improvements in wastewater treatment. Average orthophosphate concentration in European rivers has decreased markedly over the last two decades (0.003 milligrams per liter of phosphorous (mg P/l) or 2.1% per year). Also, average lake phosphorus concentration decreased over the period 1992-2012 (0.0004 mg P/l, or 0.8% per year). The decrease in phosphorus concentration reflects both improvements in wastewater treatment and the reduction of phosphorus in detergents.
Located in Data and maps Indicators Nutrients in freshwater
File Disease burdens and the risk of new pandemics — global megatrend 3
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File Environmental regulation and governance: increasing fragmentation and convergence — global megatrend 11
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File Increasing environmental pollution load — global megatrend 10
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File Continued economic growth? — global megatrend 5
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File D source code Living in an urban world — global megatrend 2
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File Increasing global divergence in population trends — global megatrend 1
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
File Intensified global competition for resources — global megatrend 7
Located in The European environment — state and outlook 2015 Global megatrends SOER 2010 — assessment of global megatrends
European Environment Agency (EEA)
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