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Figure Troff document Comparison of 2005 EU-15 emissions with hypothetical target paths towards the EU-15 Kyoto target
The Kyoto mechanisms are projected to account for 2.5 % of the EUtarget of an 8 % reduction, and the carbon sink activities are projected to contribute to an additional 0.9 %
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Figure Targets for 2010 and share of electricity consumption met by renewable energy sources in 2003 for the EU-25
National indicative targets shown are reference values that Member States agreed to take into account when setting their indicative targets by October 2003, according to the EU renewable electricity directive.
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Figure Greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-27, the EU-15 and in new Member States, 1990-2005, index 100 = base year level (EU-15) or 1990 levels (EU-27, new Member States)
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Figure Rise of greenhouse gases concentration compared with the year 1750
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Figure Absolute and relative gaps between average 2008–2011 non‑ETS emissions and Kyoto target for non‑ETS sectors (AAU initial - ETS issued) (with and without the use of carbon sinks and flexible mechanisms)
'EU‑15 (no overachievement)' corresponds to the situation of the EU‑15 where all surplus AAUs from target overachievement in the EU‑15 are not taken into account, to reflect the possibility that Member States with a surplus could use any remaining allowances for their own purposes and not necessarily make them available to compensate for Member States with a shortfall. Subsequent to the effect of allocation of allowances to the EU ETS, the target and annual emissions are those of the sectors not covered by the EU ETS. For each country, the top bar represents the gap between domestic emissions and the Kyoto target, while the bar below includes the planned effect of Kyoto mechanisms and carbon sinks. A positive value indicates a country for which average 2008–2011 non‑ETS emissions were lower than the annual target. The assessment is based on average 2008–2011 emissions and the planned use of flexible mechanisms, as well as the expected effect of LULUCF activities. EU‑15 values are the sum of the gaps/surplus for the 15 EU Member States party to Burden-Sharing Agreement. For Croatia, Iceland and Switzerland, total emissions are used as they have currently no installations under the EU ETS.
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Figure Comparison of average verified emissions and free allocation for all 30 countries participating in the EU ETS, 2008–2011
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Figure Total greenhouse gas emissions by sector (%) in EU-27, 2009
Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC and SF6 in the UNFCCC reporting format are converted to their global warming potential GWP (100 year time horizon) for addition and comparison with the Kyoto Protocol targets: 1 t CH4 = 21 t CO2-equivalent, 1 t N2O = 310 t CO2-equivalent, 1 t SF6 = 23 900 t CO2-equivalent. HFCs and PFCs have a wide range of GWPs depending on the gas and emissions are already reported in tonnes CO2-equivalent. International transport emissions (Memo items: international aviation and international maritime transport) are shown in the chart because they are the fastest growing source of emissions in the EU. They are however not included in the national totals reported as part of the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC.
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Figure Intended (2008–2012) and actual (2008–2010) average annual use of the Kyoto mechanisms
Positive values indicate net acquisition of Kyoto units while negative values indicate net sales. The actual use of Kyoto mechanisms is based on the delivery of units according to the SEF table. Countries might have acquired more units than are recorded in the SEF tables, e.g. due to delivery dates later in the commitment period. For the United Kingdom, SEF tables include the overseas territories and the crown dependencies of the United Kingdom. For the purposes of the implementation of Article 4 of the KP and as they are not part of the EC, the overseas territories and the crown dependencies of the United Kingdom were excluded from the initial assigned amount of the United Kingdom under the EC. In consequence, the trade of AAUs is slightly overestimated for the United Kingdom, as SEF tables for the geographical coverage of the United Kingdom under the EC only are not available. For Denmark, Greenland is included in the SEF tables. For the purposes of the implementation of Article 4 of the KP and as Greenland is not part of the EC, Greenland was excluded from the initial assigned amount of Denmark under the EC. In consequence, the trade of AAUs is slightly overestimated for Denmark, as SEF tables for the geographical coverage of Denmark under the EC only are not available. In Switzerland, the government decided to increase the use of flexible mechanisms compared to the current figure in order to achieve the Kyoto target.
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Figure Sectoral trends and projections of EU GHG emissions
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Figure Gaps between average total 2008–2011 emissions and Kyoto targets without the use of carbon sinks and flexible mechanisms
Each bar represents the percentage change of domestic emissions compared to base‑year emissions; the yellow line represents the Kyoto or burden-sharing target in relation to base‑year emissions. The numbers represent the gap between emissions and targets, expressed in percentage of base‑year emissions. A positive value (and black arrow pointing up) indicates that total emissions were lower than the Kyoto or burden-sharing target. A negative value (and orange arrow pointing down) indicates that total emissions were higher than the Kyoto or burden-sharing target. For Liechtenstein, Croatia and Iceland, the comparison is based on average total 2008–2010 emissions, due to the unavailability of approximated 2011 GHG emission estimates.
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European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100