Published (reviewed and quality assured)
Justification for indicator selection
Since water temperature is mainly determined by heat exchange with the atmosphere, higher air temperatures lead to higher water temperatures. Higher water temperatures, particularly in standing waters and low-flow situations in rivers, will bring about changes in the physico-chemical condition of water bodies with subsequent impacts on biological conditions. This may have severe consequences for ecosystem structure and function as well as for water use and ecosystem services.
Impacts of increased water temperatures may also include more stable vertical stratification of deep lakes and increased oxygen depletion in lake bottoms (stratification in other lakes may become less stable), more frequent harmful algal blooms, reduced habitats for cold-water aquatic species, and increased incidence of temperature-dependent diseases.
Human intervention can only help freshwater ecosystems to adapt to increasing water temperature in a limited way, for example by reducing the pressures from other human activities such as pollution by nutrients and hazardous substances and pressure from hydromorphological modifications. Such actions may make the water bodies less vulnerable to stress resulting from higher water temperature. Additional pollution load reduction measures may be needed in river basin management plans to obtain good ecological status, as required by the Water Framework Directive.
- References Ambrosetti, W. and Barbanti, L., 1999. Deep water warming in lakes: an indicator of climate change. Journal of Limnology 58: 1-9. Anneville, O.; Gammeter, S. and Straile, D., 2005. Phosphorus decrease and climate variability: mediators of synchrony in phytoplankton changes among European peri-alpine lakes. Freshwater Biology 50: 1731- 1746. BUWAL, BWG, MeteoSchweiz, 2004. Auswirkungen des Hitzesommers 2003 auf die Gewässer. Schriftenreihe Umwelt Nr. 369. Bern-Ittigen: Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft, 174 p. Dabrowski, M.; Marszelewski, W.; and Skowron, R., 2004. The trends and dependencies between air and water temperatures in lakes in northern Poland from 1961-2000. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8: 79-87. Dokulil, M. T.; Jagsch, A.; George, G. D.; Anneville, O.; Jankowski, T.; Wahl, B.; Lenhart, B.; Blenckner, T. and Teubner, K., 2006. Twenty years of spatially coherent deepwater warming in lakes across Europe related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnology and Oceanography 51: 2787-2793. Estonian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, water temperature measurements, Võrtsjärv period 1947-2006 (non published). See also Nõges and Järvet, 2005. George G.; Hurley M. and Hewitt D., 2007. The impact of climate change on the physical characteristics of the larger lakes in the English Lake District. Freshwater Biology 52: 1647-1666. George, D. G. and Hurley, M. A., 2004. The influence of sampling frequency on the detection of long-term change in three lakes in the English Lake District. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 7: 1-14. Hari, R. E.; Livingstone, D. M.; Siber, R.; Burkhardt-Holm, P. and Guttinger, H., 2006. Consequences of climatic change for water temperature and brown trout populations in Alpine rivers and streams. Global Change Biology 12: 10-26. Hohensinner, S.; Haidvogel, G.; Jungwirth, M., 2006. Natural landscape dynamics and human interferences: the Danube river landscape in the Austrian Machland 1715-1991. Rivers Run Through Them. Landscapes in Environmental History. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Environmental History, 29.3.-1.4.2006, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. Livingstone, D. M., 1993. Lake oxygenation: Application of a one-box model with ice cover. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 78: 465-480. Malmaeus, J. M.; Blenckner, T.; Markensten, H. and Persson, I., 2006. Lake phosphorus dynamics and climate warming: A mechanistic model approach. Ecological Modelling 190: 1-14. MNP, 2006. The effects of climate change in the Netherlands. (Bresser et al. (eds) Report from MNP available at http://www.mnp.nl/en/publications/2006/TheeffectsofclimatechangeintheNetherlands.html . PernaraviČiŪtĖ, B., 2004. The impact of climate change on thermal regime of Lithuanian lakes. Ekologija 2: 58-63. Rijkswaterstaat, measurements Rhine River at Lobith period 1908-2006 (unpublished). See also MNP, 2006.
- Water temperatures in four selected European rivers and lakes in the 20th century
Policy context and targets
In April 2009 the European Commission presented a White Paper on the framework for adaptation policies and measures to reduce the European Union's vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. The aim is to increase the resilience to climate change of health, property and the productive functions of land, inter alia by improving the management of water resources and ecosystems. More knowledge is needed on climate impact and vulnerability but a considerable amount of information and research already exists which can be shared better through a proposed Clearing House Mechanism. The White Paper stresses the need to mainstream adaptation into existing and new EU policies. A number of Member States have already taken action and several have prepared national adaptation plans. The EU is also developing actions to enhance and finance adaptation in developing countries as part of a new post-2012 global climate agreement expected in Copenhagen (Dec. 2009). For more information see: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/adaptation/index_en.htm
No targets have been specified
Related policy documents
No related policy documents have been specified
Key policy question
Methodology for indicator calculation
Methodology for gap filling
No methodology references available.
EEA data references
- No datasets have been specified here.
Data sources in latest figures
Data sets uncertainty
No uncertainty has been specified
Short term work
Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.
Long term work
Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.
Responsibility and ownership
EEA Contact InfoPeter Kristensen
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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