Transport emissions of greenhouse gases by mode
Assessment made on 01 Oct 2005
ClassificationTransport (Primary theme)
- TERM 002
Policy issue: Meet the EU target under the Kyoto Protocol
In the area of EEA32, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from transport (excluding international air and maritime transport) increased by 23 % between 1990 and 2003. The EU15 Member States make up 87 % of the total EEA32 transport emissions and they increased by 24 % in the period of 1990-2003. In the EFTA4 countries the emissions increased by 17 % while in the new EU Member States (EU10) the increase was 20 %. In the Acceding and Candidate Countries (AC2+CC1 - without Turkey) the emissions increased by 3 %.
For several EU15 Member States and EFTA4 countries, rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions from transport are a serious concern for meeting the Kyoto target.
In the EU15 and the EFTA3, domestic aviation was the fastest growing transport mode, while rail transport was the fastest decreasing one. Also GHG emissions from international aviation and navigation are increasing rapidly, but these emissions are, in accordance with UNFCCC guidelines, not included in the GHG emission totals relevant for the Kyoto targets.
In the EU15, the transport sector was responsible for 21 % of the total GHG emissions in 2003, while in the EU10 the transport sector contributed only by 11 % to the total GHG emissions.
GHG emissions from transport increased by 23 % between 1990 and 2003 in the EEA32 countries3. Emissions increased faster in the EU25 Member States than in the EFTA4 countries. For several EU15 Member States and EFTA4 countries rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions from transport are a serious concern for meeting the Kyoto target.
In the EU15 GHG emissions from transport increased by 24 %; they contribute by 87 % to the total EEA32 transport emissions. The transport emissions increased due to continuous increases in road transport volume (both passenger and freight).
Figure 2 shows that between 1990 and 2003, greenhouse gas emissions from transport increased in all EU15 Member States. Finland, Germany, Sweden and the UK limited their emission increases below 10 %. Austria, Portugal and Spain registered emission increases of more than 60 %. Ireland and Luxembourg more than doubled their emissions. The main reasons for the large increase in Ireland are growth in road transport volumes and "fuel tourism" (e.g. road fuels bought in Ireland, where fuel prices are relatively low, but consumed outside Ireland, particularly in Northern Ireland. "Fuel tourism" due to comparatively low fuel prices is also an important reason in other EU15 Member States such as Austria and Luxembourg.
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