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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption

Renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption

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Contents
 

Justification for indicator selection

Renewable energy has several benefits compared to fossil fuels, including a reduction in greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, lesser environmental and health impacts, and a reduced dependency on energy imports. Increasing the share of renewable energy sources in energy consumption will therefore reduce environmental pressures linked to energy resources extraction and use.

This indicator is closely related to indicator ENER28 “Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption” and ENER30 "Gross inland consumption of renewable electricity".

Scientific references:

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

The share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption is the ratio between gross inland energy consumption from renewable sources and total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year, expressed as a percentage. Both renewable energy and gross inland energy consumption are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).

Renewable energy sources are defined as renewable non-fossil sources: wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases.

Units

Both renewable energy and gross inland energy consumption are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). Therefore, the amount of renewable energy is measured in absolute value, but will be presented in the form of a percentage.

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The share of renewable energy sources in gross inland energy consumption provides a broad indication of progress towards reducing the environmental impact of energy consumption as renewable energy generally has a lower environmental impact per unit of energy produced compared to energy obtained from conventional (especially fossil) sources. Increasing the share of renewables in energy consumption will help the EU to reduce not only its GHG and air pollutant emissions, but also its energy dependence, while the overall impact will depend on which energy sources are being replaced in the energy system as well as on curbing energy demand. Various other positive side-effects of renewables may occur, like recovery of fishing stocks in the vicinity of offshore wind parks.

Like for all energy resources, renewables may also have negative environmental impacts and need to be well selected and planned. Some types of biomass and biofuel crops have considerable land, water and agricultural input requirements such as fertilisers and pesticides. Hydro power plants can have adverse impacts such as flooding, disruption of ecosystems and hydrology, and socio-economic impacts if resettlement is required (for large hydro). Some solar photovoltaic technologies require relatively large quantities of heavy metals in their construction and geothermal energy can release polluting gases and formation water if not properly controlled. Wind turbines can have visual impacts in the areas in which they are sited. These diverse impacts can and should be avoided and minimised from the outset through project design and careful planning to ensure that the right technologies are deployed in the right locations. This calls for an appropriate “climate- and environment-proofing” of all energy projects, including renewables. 

 

 Policy context

  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
  • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles
  • Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2.Sets targets for the GHG emissions from different fuel types (e.g. by improving refinery technologies) and allows the blending of up to 10 % of biofuels into diesel and petrol.
  • Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-plan); COM(2007) 723.Focuses on increasing the competitiveness of new renewable energy technologies. It aims at identifying technologies that require better coordination of Member State policies or the development of public-private partnerships with the industry.
  • White Paper: Energy for the future - renewable sources of energy; COM(97) 599 final.Sets a target for the EU-15 countries for a share of 12 % RE in GIEC.
  • Directive on Waste; Directive 2006/12/EC.Requires all EU Member States to take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is treated and disposed of correctly, sets targets for re-use and recycling, and requires Member States to draw up binding national programmes for waste prevention.


Targets

Policy target:

Two legally binding EU-wide targets for renewable energy have been defined in the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC: meeting a 20% share of renewables in gross final energy consumption by 2020, and increasing the share of renewables in transport to 10% by the same year. These targets are assessed in ENER28. In the now repealed Directive 2001/77/EC, an indicative target was to achieve by 2010 a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption (GIEC) in the EU-15.

Related policy documents

  • 2006/12/EC
    Directive on  Waste
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COD/2008/0013
    Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading system of the Community.
  • COD/2008/0014
    Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020.
  • COM(97) 599 final. Energy for the future.
    Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy. White Paper for a Community strategy and action plan. COM(97) 599 final.
  • COM(2007) 18 final
    Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2
  • COM(2007) 723
    Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-plan); COM(2007) 723
  • DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC Renewable electricity
    Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market
  • Directive 2003/30/EC, use of biofuels and renewable fuels
    Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport. Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport.
  • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
  • EurObserver (2012) Photovoltaic barometer
    Photovoltaic barometer

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Technical information

  1. Data source:
    Eurostat (historic data), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/   
    Renewable energy consumption is one of the European Environment Agency’s core-set indicators. More information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI.
    IEA Data Services, http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP 
  2. Description of data / Indicator definition:
    The share of renewable energy consumption is the ratio between gross inland energy consumption from renewable sources (TOE) and total gross inland energy consumption (TOE) calculated for a calendar year, expressed as a percentage. Both renewable energy and total energy consumption are measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).
    Renewable energy sources are defined as renewable non-fossil sources: wind, solar, geothermal, wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases.
  3. Geographical coverage:
    The Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and, Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Data for World, United States, China, India, Russia, the Middle East and Africa.
  4. Temporal coverage: 1990-2012.
  5. Methodology and frequency of data collection:
    Data collected annually.
    Eurostat definitions and concepts for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
  6. Methodology of data manipulation:
    Renewable energy consumption is the ratio between the gross inland energy consumption from renewable sources and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year.
    The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    Numerator: Hydro power  5510 + Wind power 5520 + Solar thermal 5532 + Solar photovoltaic 5534 + Tide, Wave and Ocean 5535 + Solid biomass (excluding charcoal) 5541 + Biogas 5542 + Municipal waste (renewable) 55431 + Charcoal 5544 + Biogasoline 5546 + Biodiesel 5547+ Other liquid biofuels 5548 + Bio jet kerosene 5549 + Geothermal Energy 5550
    Denominator
    : (total) gross energy inland consumption 100900

    Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100

    IEA data:Report ‘Energy balances Non-OECD countries’ and ‘Energy balances OECD countries’, table ‘Energy balances (ktoe)’, products ‘Hydro’, ‘Geothermal’, ‘Solar/Wind/Other’, ‘Combustible renewables and waste’ and ‘Total’, flow ‘Total Primary Energy Supply’.

    Qualitative information
  7. Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
    Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM&StrGroupCode=LEX_MANUAL&StrLanguageCode=EN
  8. Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
    Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for industry.
    The indicator measures the relative consumption of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption for a particular country. The share of renewable energy could increase even if the actual energy consumption from renewable sources falls. Similarly, the share could fall despite an increase in energy consumption from renewable sources. CO2 emissions depend not on the share of renewables but on the total amount of energy consumed from fossil sources. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, attaining the 2010 target for the share of renewable energy does not necessarily imply that CO2 emissions from energy consumption will fall.
  9. Overall scoring (historical data)
    Relevance: 1
    Accuracy: 2
    Comparability over time: 1
    Comparability over space: 1

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling necessary.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

External data references

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Biomass and wastes, as defined by Eurostat, cover organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste, biogas, municipal solid waste (MSW) and biofuels. MSW comprises biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes produced by different sectors. Non-biodegradable municipal and solid wastes are not considered to be renewable, but current data availability does not allow the non-biodegradable content of wastes to be identified separately, except for industry.

The indicator measures the relative consumption of energy from renewable sources in gross inland energy consumption for a particular country. If gross inland energy consumption decreases, the share of renewable energy could increase even if the actual energy consumption from renewable sources falls. Similarly, the share could fall despite an increase in energy consumption from renewable sources. CO2 emissions depend not on the share of renewables but on the total amount of energy consumed from fossil sources. Therefore, from an environmental point of view, attaining the 2020 target for the share of renewable energy does not necessarily imply that CO2 emissions from energy consumption will fall.

Data sets uncertainty

Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)

Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/nomenclatures/index.cfm?TargetUrl=LST_NOM&StrGroupCode=LEX_MANUAL&StrLanguageCode=EN

Rationale uncertainty

 

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Mihai Florin Tomescu

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CSI 030
ENER 029
Specification
Version id: 3
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Permalinks

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Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year in October-December (Q4)

Classification

DPSIR: Response
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)

Related content

Data references used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

Geographic coverage

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
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Phone: +45 3336 7100