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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Renewable gross final energy consumption / Renewable gross final energy consumption (ENER 028) - Assessment published Apr 2012

Renewable gross final energy consumption (ENER 028) - Assessment published Apr 2012

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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
climate change | energy | energy consumption | renewable energy
DPSIR: Impact
Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
Indicator codes
  • ENER 028
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009, 2020
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: How rapidly are renewable technologies being implemented in Europe?

Key messages

In 2009, the share of renewable energy in final gross energy consumption (with normalised hydro and wind)[1] in the EU-27 was 11.7 % up from 6% in 1990, representing nearly 60 % of the 20 % target set in the EU directive on renewable energy for 2020. Renewable energies represented in 2009, 13.1% of total final heat consumption (6.6% in 1990), 19.6% of electricity consumption (up from 11.8% in 1990) and 4.1% of transport fuels consumption (up from 0.02% in 1993)[2].


[1] Gross final consumption of energy is defined in Directive 2009/28/EC on renewable sources as energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to final consumers (industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries), including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission.

[2] The gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources is calculated as the sum of: (a) gross final consumption of electricity from renewable energy sources; (b) gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources for heating and cooling; and (c) final consumption of energy from renewable sources in transport.

Share of renewable energy to final energy consumption

Note: The share of renewable energy in final energy consumption in the EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat 2010 Energy statistics - annual data.

  • All products
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Oil
  • Renewables and wastes (total, solar heat, biomass, geothermal, wastes)
  • Renewables (hydro, wind, photovoltaic)

Tables available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

 

 

Downloads and more info

Share of Renewable Energy to Final Energy Consumption with normalised hydro and wind in EEA countries

Note: Share of Renewable Energy to Final Energy Consumption with normalised for hydro, EU27. In 2009 the European Commission adopted a new directive on renewable energy (2009/28/EC). The new Directive on renewable energy sets an ambitious target for the EU-27 of 20% share of energy from renewable sources in final energy consumption by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy in the transport sector (in each Member State).

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption -  renewables and wastes (total, solar heat, biomass, geothermal, wastes)  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption -  renewables (hydro, wind, photovoltaic)  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

 

 

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

  • In the EU-27, renewables accounted for 11.7% of final energy consumption in 2009 compared to 6% in 1990, representing nearly 60% of the 2020 target (see Figure 2).  Renewable energy consumption mainly increased from 2005 to 2009; in the same time the overall final energy consumption decreased by 1.7%/year. In 2009 and despite the economic and financial crisis, renewable energy consumption continues to grow (+4.9%) as total final energy consumption falls (-5.2%).The fastest progression in the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption between 2005 and 2009 is mainly observed in Sweden and Austria (+6.8 percentage points and 6.5 percentage points), followed by Estonia (+5.4 percentage points), Romania (+5.3 percentage points), Spain (+4.7 percentage points) and Portugal (4.1 percentage points).  Most of EU countries proposes financial (subsidies/ soft loans for energy efficiency investments / equipment) or fiscal incentives (tax reduction for energy/CO2 efficient equipment/investments, tax credit /deduction) to promote renewables, especially in the household sector[1]. For renewable electricity, most countries have implemented feed-in tariff and/or green certificates to increase the electricity production from renewables (see below).

 

  • The share of renewable energy in final energy consumption across non-EU EEA countries in 2009 was higher than in the EU-27 (around 24%). The higher number for these countries is linked to the high share of hydroelectricity in Norway, (65.1 %.including other renewables). The final consumption of renewables however decreased by 0.4%/year since 1990 and dropped in 2009 by 4.1%.


[1] More information available in the MURE database (http//www.mure2.com and in the data base of the World Energy Council on policies and measures (http://www.wec-policies.enerdata.eu/)

Specific policy question: How rapidly are renewable energies being consumed in electricity, heat and transport sectors?

Specific assessment

  • In 2009, renewable electricity (with normalised hydropower and wind) accounted for around 40.6 % of renewable energy consumption in EU-27 (39.7% in 1990, 43.6% in 2005).  The largest portion of renewable electricity in EU-27 is still generated from hydropower. In 2009, 352 TWh of electricity were generated from hydropower (normalised hydro) representing 55.6% in total renewable electricity. The largest contributors of non hydro renewable electricity are Germany (30%), Spain (18%), Italy, UK (8% each), France and Sweden (5% each). Wind generation (normalised) increased by 18.5%/year in EU since 2005, due to a rapid increase in Germany (+11.5%/year, contribution of 31% in the 2009 EU wind production), Spain (16.4%/year, contribution 28%), UK (34.2%/year, contribution 7%) and France (66.4%/year, contribution of 6%) (see ENER 27).

 

  • All countries in Europe have introduced renewable policies and support scheme for renewables in their Energy Plan: 16 EEA countries offer feed-in tariffs to support development of electricity generation from renewables. In six countries, tariffs are mixed with premiums on top of the market price to compensate the difference when wholesale electricity price is below a fixed guaranteed tariff: Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Slovenia, Estonia and the Czech Republic. In other six countries, a green certificate scheme has been preferred: Sweden, UK, Belgium, Italy, Poland and Romania. Electricity producers have to certify a certain quota of the electricity distributed is generated from renewables.

 

  • In 2009, renewable heat accounted for 13.1% of total final heat consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, the amount of heat produced from direct use of biomass was 58.3 Mtoe, representing 43.5% of the final renewable energy consumption. Heat production from large biomass CHP and heat plants[1] was 9.4 Mtoe, representing a threefold increase since 1990. In 2009, it accounted for 7.1% of the final renewable energy consumption. The main producers of biomass-derived heat are Sweden (32%), Germany (17%), Finland (14%), Denmark (13%) and Austria (7%), which together accounted for 82 % of the total biomass use for heat production in CHP and heat plants in 2009.

 

  • In 2009, the share of biofuels in petrol and diesel reached 4.1 % in EU-27, representing  70% of the target of 5.75% in 2010 and a steep increase compared to 2005 ( +3.1 percentage points). In 2009, four countries have already exceeded the 2010 target : Slovakia with 9.8%, followed by Austria (7%), France (6.2%) and Germany (5.8%). In 2009, Germany was by far the largest consumer of biofuels, accounting for 23 % of total biofuels consumption in the EU-27, followed by France with 21%. However, recent policy developments such as reduced tax exemptions for biofuels and introduction of a quota system with a level lower than expected are likely to temper further development of biofuels in Germany, in the near future.


[1] Biomass derived residual heat from CHP and heat plant.

Specific policy question: What are the observed trends in renewable heat consumption in sectors (industry, households, services, etc)?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2009, renewable heat consumption in EU-27 increased by 50% in the industry sector and by 56% in other sectors (households, services, etc). Sweden, Germany and Finland are the largest users of renewable heat in industry, accounting for around 46% of total EU-27 industrial consumption of renewable heat in 2009. Due to the presence of a large pulp and paper industry, Finland and Sweden have a large resource of black liquors which is used to produce industrial heat. France, Germany and Turkey are among the countries with the highest consumption of renewable heat in other sectors (households, services, etc). Germany, Romania and Poland contributed the most to the absolute growth in the consumption of renewable heat in the other sectors. Turkey showed a large decline in the use of renewables for heat production in the other sectors between 1990 and 2009 (-30.8 %); this is due in part to a transition of wood fuelled domestic heating systems to gas and district heating.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2011 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Document Actions
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100