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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances / Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (CSI 006/CLIM 049) - Assessment published Jan 2009

Production and consumption of ozone depleting substances (CSI 006/CLIM 049) - Assessment published Jan 2009

Indicator Assessment Created 21 Dec 2008 Published 16 Jan 2009 Last modified 12 Mar 2015, 11:35 AM
Topics: ,
 
Contents
 

Indicator definition

This indicator quantifies the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in Europe. ODS are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine or/and bromine and that destroy the stratospheric ozone layer.

Units

Tonnes of ODS weighted by their Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP).


Key policy question: Are ozone-depleting substances being phased out according to the agreed schedule?

Key messages

Implementation of the Montreal Protocol has led to a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere. The total production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries has decreased strongly since the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, and it is practically zero nowadays. However, the ozone hole expanded in 2008 to 27 million square kilometres, equivalent to about 6 times the territory of the EU.

Production of ozone depleting substances in EEA member countries, 1986-2007

Note: Some of the calculated production or consumption figures may be negative

Data source:

UNEP

Downloads and more info

Consumption of ozone depleting substances (EU-27), 1986-2007

Note: Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol

Data source:

UNEP

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

For EEA member countries as a whole, consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances has gone down markedly, particularly in the first half of the 1990s. Before the Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987, the production of ODSs in the EEA stood at about 516616 ODP (i.e. ozone depletion potential) tonnes. In 2006, production was down to 114 OPD tonnes, and in 2007 it was actually negative. Negative numbers are possible because 'production' is defined under Article 1(5) of the Montreal Protocol as production minus the amount destroyed minus the amount entirely used as feedstock in the manufacture of other chemicals. Therefore, calculated production may be negative if destroyed amounts and/or feedstocks (e.g. from a carry-over stock) exceed production. Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports of controlled substances under the Montreal Protocol. As with calculated production, the consumption of ODS can be negative. The consumption of ODPs in EEA member countries fell from 406,320 in 1986 to -5 461 in 2007 (see charts).

Globally, the 2006 UNEP Synthesis Assessment under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer showed there is clear evidence of a decrease in the atmospheric burden of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) in the lower atmosphere and in the stratosphere; as well as some early signs of an onset of the expected stratospheric ozone recovery.

UNEP's Synthesis Assessment is supported by the three 2006 Assessment Panel Reports (i.e. Scientific Panel, Environmental Effects Panel and Technology and Economic Panel).  The Panels are the pillars of the ozone protection regime since the implementation of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 (i.e. the UNEP treaty to protect the Earth's ozone layer). According to the conclusions from the Panels, there are a number of options available to return to the pre-1980 levels (the period used as benchmark for the global ozone layer recovery). These include: 1) accelerated phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and tighter control of methyl bromide applications and 2) immediate collection and destruction, in order of importance, of halons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and HCFCs.

There are also links between ozone depletion and climate change. According to the 'Environmental Effects' Panel of the 2006 UNEP's Scientific Assessment under the Montreal Protocol, ozone depletion also influences climate change since both ozone and the compounds responsible for its depletion are active greenhouse gases. Yet, warming due to ODSs and cooling associated with ozone depletion are two distinct climate forcing mechanisms that do not simply offset one another. The Panel concludes that bromine gases contribute much more to cooling than to warming, whereas CFCs and HCFCs contribute more to warming than to cooling. HFCs and PFCs contribute only to warming.

International efforts to safeguard the earth's climate (UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol) and protect the ozone layer (Montreal Protocol) can be mutually supportive. HCFCs both damage the ozone layer (although less than CFCs) and contribute to global warming. They were planned as interim substitutes and were due to be phased out in 2030 by developed countries and in 2040 by developing ones. However, HCFC concentrations continue to increase in the atmosphere. In 2007, governments from developed and developing countries agreed to freeze production of HCFCs in developing countries by 2013 and bring forward the final phase-out date of these chemicals by ten years in both developed and developing countries (Montreal/Nairobi, 22 September 2007). This can be seen as a historic agreement to tackle the challenges of protecting the ozone layer and combating climate change at the same time.

It is worth noting that according to UNEP's 2006 Assessment, there exist technically and economically feasible substitutes for almost all ODS applications.

Some other key findings of UNEPs' 2006 assessment were:

  • Polar ozone loss will remain large and highly variable in the coming decades, and the Antarctic ozone hole will persist longer than previously estimated.
  • Failure to continue to comply with the Montreal Protocol could delay or even prevent the recovery of the ozone layer.
  • UV-B radiation influences living organisms, ecosystems, and materials. In human populations it can cause severe damage to the eyes, skin cancers, and suppressions of the immune system.
  • The projected recovery of the ozone layer is sensitive to future levels of greenhouse gases and the associated changes in climate.
  • Climate change will influence the exposure of all living organisms to UV-B radiation via changes in cloudiness, precipitation, and ice cover.

At the EU level, the European Commission presented a proposal amending Regulation (EC) No 2037/2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The proposal removes obsolete provisions and procedures, streamlines reporting obligations and brings forward the production phase-out of HCFCs from 2025 to 2020. It also introduces amendments to enforce and prevent the illegal trade or use of ODS in the EU. Moreover, the proposal tightens current provisions on the recovery and destruction of ODS contained in products and equipment (ODS banks). There is also a list of new substances for which production and import volumes have to be reported. Finally, the proposal lowers the existing cap on the use of methyl bromide for quarantine and pre-shipment and ensures a complete phase-out of such uses by 2015, while making the available recapture technologies mandatory in the meantime.

Finally, the latest research from scientists from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) shows the ozone hole over Antarctica has expanded in 2008 compared to 2007. The ozone hole was measured in October 2008 by the SCIAMACHY atmospheric sensor onboard ESA's ENVISAT. The size reached about 27 million square kilometres. This is roughly equivalent to 6 times the territory of the European Union.

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

Following agreement of the Vienna convention (1985) and the Montreal protocol (1987) and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase-out production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks progress towards this limiting or phasing-out production and consumption of ODS.

For the European Union, the ratification rates were the following:

Treaty

Date of Ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 Oct 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 Dec 1988

London Amendment

 20 Dec 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 Nov 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 Nov 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 Mar 2002

Targets

The international target under the Ozone Conventions and Protocols is the complete phase-out of ODS, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Montreal Protocol are considered as developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10 - 20 years as compared to non-article 5(1) countries.

Montreal protocol EEA member ountries 
article 5(1)  Cyprus, Malta, Romania and Turkey
non-article 5(1) all other EEA member countries


Summary of phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments.

Group Phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries Remark

Annex-A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: Halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100% reduction by 1-1-1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: Other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: Carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (=methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (HydroChloroFluoroCarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35 % reduction by 1-1-2004

65 % reduction by 1-1-2010

90 % reduction by 1-1-2015

99.5 % reduction by 1-1-2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date.

100 % reduction by 1-1-2030

Applicable to consumption

 

Base level: Average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1-1-2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (HydroBromoFluoroCarbons)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: Bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified.

100% reduction by 1-1-2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 1-1-1995

25 % reduction by 1-1-1999

50 % reduction by 1-1-2001

75 % reduction by 1-1-2003

100 % reduction by 1-1-2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption



Related policy documents

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

The indicator presents production and consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS produced or consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone secretariat data are already provided in tonnes of Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP tonnes). All data can be downloaded from http://ozone.unep.org/Data_Access/

 

How is production and consumption calculated?

http://ozone.unep.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions/faqs_compliance.shtml 

 

Calculation formulae are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol.

 

Simple definition:

Consumption = Production + Imports - Exports

Subtract Destroyed amounts

Subtract Feedstock Uses

Exclude Quarantine and Pre-shipment applications for methyl bromide

Include Exports to non-Parties as consumption

 

Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in the official data reporting forms. The Parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task

 

Calculated Production = (Production - Feedstock Production - Feedstock Exports - Quarantine Production) - Destroyed

Calculated Consumption = (Production - Feedstock Production - Quarantine Production) + (Imports - Feedstock Imports - Quarantine Imports) - (Exports - Quarantine Exports) - Destroyed + Non Party Exports

 

Parties that only import ozone-depleting substances, ODS, (that is, they do not produce ODS, use ODS for feedstock, destroy ODS or re-export ODS) will usually have zero annual calculated production of ODS, and their annual calculated consumption will be equal to their imports.

 

(Feedstock Production is only for internal use)

(Quarantine Production is both for internal use and for export)

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling takes place.

Methodology references

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

 

Data sets uncertainty

---

Rationale uncertainty

Policies focuses on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Generic metadata

Topics:

Climate change Climate change (Primary topic)

Tags:
ozone | soer2010 | csi | air
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 006
  • CLIM 049
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1986-2007
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
Filed under: , , ,

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100