Production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: CSI 006 , CLIM 049
Created 07 Oct 2010 Published 24 Aug 2015 Last modified 24 Aug 2016, 03:10 PM
Topics: , ,
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments, as well as trends in the remaining uses of ODS within the EU. Context: The ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth’s atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone ( O 3 ) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the ultraviolet sun radiation. This natural phenomenon is essential for life on Earth because ultraviolet radiation damages living tissue. Ozone depletion refers to a steady decline of the ozone concentration in the stratosphere and a decrease in stratospheric ozone in the Polar Regions during the spring season. This has become widely known as the ‘ozone hole’. This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was caused by complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ODS, which are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

The release of ozone-depleting substances to the atmosphere leads to the depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, which is manifested most prominently in the occurrence of the annual ozone hole over the Antarctic. The stratospheric ozone layer protects humans and the environment from harmful ultra-violet (UV) radiation emitted by the sun. Ozone is destroyed by chlorine and bromine atoms that are released in the stratosphere from man-made chemicals - including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, 1,1,1 tricholoroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride (CTC), hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs), bromochloromethane (BCM), n-propyl bromide and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs); all anthropogenic chemicals - as well as methyl chloride (MC) and methyl bromide (MB). Depletion of stratospheric ozone leads to increases in ambient ultra-violet radiation at the surface, which has a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and food chains. This indicator tracks the annual maximum Antarctic ozone hole area to determine the state of the ozone layer and its recovery since the late 1970s.

Since the mid 1980s, various policy measures have been introduced to limit or phase-out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion. This indicator tracks progress towards these objectives of limiting or phasing-out consumption of ODS in the EEA-33. It also highlights the remaining uses of ODS, ranks their harmfulness to the ozone layer and tracks related trends since 2011.

Scientific references

Indicator definition

Ozone-depleting substances (ODS) are are long-lived chemicals that contain chlorine and/or bromine and can deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. This indicator quantifies the current state of the ozone layer, the progress being made towards meeting the EU’s Montreal Protocol commitments, as well as trends in the remaining uses of ODS within the EU.

Context: The ozone layer refers to a region of the Earth’s atmosphere (the stratosphere) in which ozone (O
3
) is present in concentrations high enough to absorb most of the
ultraviolet sun radiation. This natural phenomenon is essential for life on Earth because ultraviolet radiation damages living tissue. Ozone depletion refers to a steady decline of the ozone concentration in the stratosphere and a decrease in stratospheric ozone in the Polar Regions during the spring season. This has become widely known as the ‘ozone hole’. This phenomenon was first observed during the 1970s, when it was shown that the ozone hole was caused by complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving so-called ODS, which are almost exclusively a result of human industrial activity.

Units

Depending on the metric involved, this indicator uses the annual maximum Antarctic Ozone Hole area in square kilometers (km2) and ODS consumption weighted by their ozone-depleting potential (ODP) in ODP tonnes.

Policy context and targets

Context description

The 1987 United Nations Environment Programme Montreal Protocol is widely recognised as one of the most successful multilateral environmental agreements to date. Its implementation has led to a global decrease of the impact of ODS on the atmosphere. The agreement covers the phase-out of over 200 ODS including CFCs, halons, CTC, TCA, HCFCs, HBFCs, BCM and methyl bromide MB. The Montreal Protocol controls the consumption and production of these substances, not their emissions.

Following the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments, policy measures have been taken to limit or phase-out the production and consumption of ODS in order to protect the stratospheric ozone layer against depletion. This indicator tracks the progress of EU Member States towards this limiting or phasing-out of ODS consumption.

For the European Union, the ratification dates were the following:

Treaty

Date of Ratification

Vienna Convention

 17 Oct 1988

Montreal Protocol

 16 Dec 1988

London Amendment

 20 Dec 1991

Copenhagen Amendment

 20 Nov 1995

Montreal Amendment

 17 Nov 2000

Beijing Amendment

 25 Mar 2002

EEA member countries have made tremendous progress in reducing the consumption and production of ODS since the signing of the Montreal Protocol. In that time, ODS production fell from over half a million ODP tonnes to practically zero, not including production for exempted uses. Since 2009, EEA member countries have also been subject to the more stringent EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC as amended by 744/2010/EU), which applies to additional substances and accelerates the phase-out of remaining ODS in the EU.

Targets

The international target under the ozone conventions and protocols is the complete phase-out of ODS, according to the schedule below.

Countries falling under Article 5, paragraph 1 of the Montreal Protocol are considered as developing countries under the protocol. Phase-out schedules for Article 5(1) countries are delayed by 10-20 years compared with non-article 5(1) countries.

Montreal protocolEEA member ountries 
article 5(1)  Turkey
non-article 5(1) All other EEA member countries

 

Summary of phase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countries, including Beijing adjustments.

GroupPhase-out schedule for non-article 5(1) countriesRemark

Annex-A, group 1: CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115)

Base level: 1986

100 % reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex A, group 2: Halons (halon 1211, halon 1301, halon 2402)

Base level: 1986

100 % reduction by 01/01/1994 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 1: Other fully halogenated CFCs (CFC-13, CFC-111, CFC-112, CFC-211, CFC-212, CFC-213, CFC-214, CFC-215, CFC-216, CFC-217)

Base level: 1989

100% reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 2: Carbontetrachloride (CCl4)

Base level: 1989

100 % reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex B, group 3: 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CH3CCl3) (=methyl chloroform)

Base level: 1989

100 % reduction by 01-01-1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 1: HCFCs (Hydrochlorofluorocarbons)

Base level: 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 1996

35 % reduction by 01/01/2004

65 % reduction by 01/01/2010

90 % reduction by 01/01/2015

99.5 % reduction by 01/01/2020, and thereafter consumption restricted to the servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment existing at that date.

100 % reduction by 01/01/2030

Applicable to consumption

 

Base level: Average of 1989 HCFC production + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC production and 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption

Freeze: 01/01/2004, at the base level for production

Applicable to production

Annex C, group 2: HBFCs (Hydrobromofluorocarbons)

Base level: year not specified.

100 % reduction by 01/01/1996 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex C, group 3: Bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl)

Base level: year not specified.

100 % reduction by 01/01/2002 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Annex E, group 1: Methyl bromide (CH3Br)

Base level: 1991

Freeze: 01-01-1995

25 % reduction by 01/01/1999

50 % reduction by 01/01/2001

75 % reduction by 01/01/2003

100 % reduction by 01/01/2005 (with possible essential use exemptions)

Applicable to production and consumption

Related policy documents

Key policy question

Are ozone-depleting substances being phased out according to the agreed schedule?

Specific policy question

What are the remaining uses of ozone-depleting substances?

Specific policy question

What is the current state of the ozone layer?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Maximum ozone hole area

This indicator presents the maximum ozone hole area in square kilometres. The ozone hole area is determined from total ozone satellite measurements. It is defined to be that region of ozone values below 220 Dobson Units (DU) located south of 40 °S. The maximum ozone hole area is provided in square kilometres by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center via the Ozone Hole Watch. It can be accessed online at: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/meteorology/annual_data.html

Consumption of ozone depleting substances

The indicator presents ODS consumption in units of tonnes of ODS, which is the amount of ODS consumed, multiplied by their respective ozone depleting potential value. The UNEP - Ozone Secretariat data are already provided in ODP tonnes. All data can be downloaded from http://ozone.unep.org/Data_Access/

Formulae for the calculation of consumption are defined by Articles 1 and 3 of the Montreal Protocol and a summary can be accessed here: http://ozone.unep.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions/faqs_compliance.shtml

Simply put, consumption is defined as production + imports – exports. Amounts destroyed or used as feedstock are subtracted from production. Amounts of methyl bromide used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications are excluded. Exports to non-parties are included, but are not allowed.

Parties report each of the above components annually to the Ozone Secretariat in the official data reporting forms. The parties do not, however, make the above subtractions and other calculations themselves. The Ozone Secretariat performs this task itself.

Remaining uses of ozone depleting substances in EU Member States

This indicator presents reported sales of ODS on the European market and reported production in ODP tonnes (see above). This data are annually reported to the EEA by companies under the EU ODS Regulation (1005/2009/EC) and treated as confidential. Data represented here were reported by at least three company groups that each contributed at least 5 % to the total reported amount.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap-filling takes place.

Methodology references

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Policies focus on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions, which actually harm the ozone layer. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after the disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.). The same is true for sales of ODS for certain uses and their actual use.

Data sets uncertainty

Data provided by the Ozone Secretariat and the EEA Ozone Database are based on what companies producing, importing, exporting, using or destroying ODS  are reporting. A number of rigorous quality checks ensure a high degree of completeness and correctness. The quality of the data ultimately remains the responsibility of each reporting company.

Omissions and double-counting are theoretically possible due to the nature of the reporting obligation under the ODS Regulation. It is estimated that such uncertainties constitute a negligible part of the data.

Rationale uncertainty

Policies focuses on the production and consumption of ODS rather than emissions. The reason is that emissions from multiple small sources are much more difficult to monitor accurately than industrial production and consumption. Consumption is the driver for industrial production. Production and consumption can precede emissions by many years, as emissions typically take place after disposal of products in which ODS are used (fire-extinguishers, refrigerators, etc.).

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CSI 006
CLIM 049
Specification
Version id: 2
Primary theme: Climate change Climate change

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Performance indicator (Type B - Does it matter?)

Related content

Data references used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100