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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Primary energy consumption by fuel / Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 04 Aug 2011 Published 10 Aug 2011 Last modified 11 Mar 2014, 01:48 PM
Topics: ,
This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | csi | electricity | energy | lca | ghg retrospective
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 029
  • ENER 026
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2009
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom
 
Contents
 

Indicator definition

Total energy consumption or gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total gross inland energy consumption calculated for a calendar year.

Units

Energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage.

 

Projections are for 2020-2030 from the POLES (IPTS) Baseline and GHG Reduction Scenario, from the WEO 2009 (IEA) Reference and 450 Stabilization Case and from PRIMES (EC) Baseline and Reference scenarios

 


Key policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption Europe?

Key messages

Total gross inland energy consumption increased until 2004 and is now decreasing in the EU-27: it was about 10% above its 1990 level in 2004 (average growth of 0.7 % per year). It was stable in 2005 and 2006 and decreased in 2007 and 2008 (by 1% and 0.5% respectively): as a result the gross inland consumption was in 2008 1.4% below its 2004 level. Fossil fuels continue to dominate total energy consumption in EU-27, but their share in gross inland energy consumption is declining: from 83% in 1990 to 78% in 2008. The share of renewable energy sources almost doubled between 1990 and 2008 (8.4 % in 2008 compared to 4.4% in 1990. The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased slightly, to 13.4% in 2008 from 12.2 % in 1990.

Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27, 1990-2008 and 2007-2008

Note: Between 1990 and 2008, the share of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil and natural gas) in gross inland consumption of the EU-27 declined slightly from 83 % in 1990 to 78% in 2008. In absolute terms, the total amount of fossil fuels consumed increased by 1.6 % over the same period of time (0.1%/year). During this period, the share of renewables in gross inland consumption increased by 4 points, from 4.4 % in 1990 to 8.4 % in 2008 while the share of energy consumption from nuclear increased from 12.2 % (1990) to 13.4% (2007)

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) emissions of energy technologies for electricity production

Note: LCA emissions of energy technologies for electricity production. Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, potential flooding and changed water levels from large hydro power) and the incineration of municipal waste (which is generally made up of both renewable and non-renewable material) may also generate local air pollution.

Data source:

EEA (2009) - Review and analysis of emissions' life cycle analysis studies in the field of conventional and renewable energy generation technologies. Copenhagen, EEA, February 2009

"Life Cycle Analysis of GHG and Air Pollutant Emissions from Renewable and Conventional Electricity, Heating, and Transport Fuel Options in the EU until 2030”, ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/18

http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/reports/docs//ETCACC_TP_2009_18_LCA_GHG_AE_2013-2030.pdf

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Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27, 1990-2008

Note: Total gross inland energy consumption increased until 2004 in the EU-27It: it was about 10% above its 1990 level in 2004 (average growth of 0.7 % per year). Since 2004, it is has stopped growing: it was stable in 2005 and 2006 and decreased in 2007 and 2008 (by 1% and 0.5% respectively): as a result, the gross inland consumption was in 2008 1.4% below its 2004 level. Total gross inland energy consumption was in 2008 8.3% above its 1990 level.

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

 

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Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2008

Note: Total gross inland energy consumption increased until 2004 in the EU-27It: it was about 10% above its 1990 level in 2004 (average growth of 0.7 % per year). Since 2004, it is has stopped growing: it was stable in 2005 and 2006 and decreased in 2007 and 2008 (by 1% and 0.5% respectively): as a result, the gross inland consumption was in 2008 1.4% below its 2004 level. Total gross inland energy consumption was in 2008 8.3% above its 1990 level.

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

IEA. Total primary energy supply by product: IEA: http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP

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Key assessment

  • Total gross inland energy consumption increased until 2004 in the EU-27It: it was about 10% above its 1990 level in 2004 (average growth of 0.7 % per year). Since 2004, it is has stopped growing: it was stable in 2005 and 2006 and decreased in 2007 and 2008 (by 1% and 0.5% respectively): as a result, the gross inland consumption was in 2008 1.4% below its 2004 level. Total gross inland energy consumption was in 2008 8.3% above its 1990 level. For details see Figure 1 and Figure 3 (Table).
  • Between 1990 and 2008, the share of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil and natural gas) in gross inland consumption of the EU-27 declined slightly from 83 % in 1990 to 78% in 2008. In absolute terms, the total amount of fossil fuels consumed increased by 1.6 % over the same period of time (0.1%/year). During this period, the share of renewables in gross inland consumption increased by 4 points, from 4.4 % in 1990 to 8.4 % in 2008 (see also ENER 29) while the share of energy consumption from nuclear increased from 12.2 % (1990) to 13.4% (2007) (see also ENER13). See Figure 2 for details.
  • For the non-EU EEA member states, the gross inland energy consumption increased rapidly (+ 61% or 2.7%/year on average), mainly because of Turkey (+3.7%/year), and the growth did not stop in recent years as observed in the EU. Turkey represents now 62% of the total gross inland energy consumption of non-EU EEA member states (up from 52% in 1990). The shares by fuel in 2008 are comparable to the shares by fuel in the EU-27 countries, except for nuclear (13.4% in EU-27 and 4.4% in non EU-EEA) and renewable (8.4% in EU-27 and 19.4% in non EU-EEA).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of solid fuels in total gross inland consumption in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • The share of coal and lignite in gross inland consumption in 2008 was 17 % compared to 27 % in 1990. Over this period, the absolute consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 32 % at an annual average rate of 2.1 %. In 2008, the decrease in solid fuel consumption was important (-6.9%) compared to the two previous years (2006 and 2007) where the share of solid fuels in gross inland consumption in the EU-27 increased by 1.7%. This increase may have been partly due to the narrowing of the gas – coal price differential and the switch from coal to gas in power generation. Increased use of solid fuels also has also implications for European import dependency as around 40% of the coal based gross inland consumption was imported in 2008, mostly hard coal – around 95% (see also ENER 12 for details).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption increased from around 18 % in 1990 to 24.5 % in 2008. Over the period, the consumption in natural gas increased by 49.5% (2.3%/year), second highest rate after renewable (108%). This is due to switching from coal to gas which occurred in the power generation sector (but not exclusively), triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). However, in 2007, the consumption of natural gas decreased by 1.3% before an upturn in 2008 (1.9%)  (see Figure 2 below). Natural gas use also has implications for European import dependency as around 60% of the gas-based gross inland consumption was imported in 2008 (see also ENER 12 for details). The increased penetration of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), although does not reduce the dependency on imports, it does help in diversifying suppliers. For instance, LNG is already becoming a significant source of energy in Spain and Portugal with main supplying countries including Trinidad Tobago, Qatar, Algeria, Egypt and Nigeria.

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of crude oil and petroleum products in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of oil (crude oil and petroleum products) decreased from around 38 % in 1990 to 36.5 % in 2008, with most of the reduction taking place since 2003. In absolute terms, consumption remained quite stable between 1998 and 2006 (around 674 Mtoe): the increased demand for petrol and diesel in the transport sector was offset by a decline in the use of oil for power generation and in the industry and residential sectors. Since 2006, the oil consumption decreased (- 2.7%):  partly because of an increase in the use of biofuels in the transport sector and the impact of high oil price. In EU-27, in 2008, around 90% of the crude oil and oil products consumed were imported (see also ENER 12).

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of renewables in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of renewables in total gross inland consumption increased from 4.4 % in 1990 to 8.4 % in 2008 (+4 points) (see also ENER 29). The share of renewables mainly increased since 2003: +2.4 points, which represents two thirds of the progression since 1990.  Renewables (together with natural gas) were the fastest growing energy source between 1990 and 2008 due primarily to environmental and security of supply concerns as well as economic reasons in the case of natural gas. However, despite increased support at the EU and national level, their contribution in total gross inland consumption remains low at 8.4% in 2008. In absolute terms consumption increased at an average rate of 4.2 %/year over the period 1990-2008. In recent years however, the pace of renewable penetration in EU-27 accelerated. Since 2006, the consumption from renewable energy increased by 8.2%/year, twice the average rate over the whole period 1990-2008.

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of nuclear energy increased until 2002 from 12.2 % in 1990 to 14.5% in 2002: it is then slowly decreasing (13.4 % in 2008). In absolute terms, energy consumption from nuclear increased until 2004 (+28% between 1990 and 2004) and is now decreasing (-7% between 2004 and 2008), because of the shutdown of reactors in several countries. The largest reduction are observed in UK (-41% since 2003), In Lithuania (-36% since 2003), in Bulgaria (-22% since 2002), in Sweden (-17% since 2004) and in Germany (-14% since 2001). Nuclear production however increased in two countries, in the Czech Republic and in Romania. While nuclear power produces less greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution over the life cycle compared to conventional sources, there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases, and highly radioactive waste (for which no generally acceptable disposal route has yet been established) is accumulating.

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The level, the evolution as well as the structure of the total gross inland energy consumption provide an indication of the extent  environmental pressures caused by energy production and consumption are likely to diminish or not. The indicator displays data disaggregated by fuel type as the associated environmental impacts are fuel-specific.

The consumption of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, oil products, hard coal, lignite and natural and natural  gas)  has a number of negative effects on the environment and human health , CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution levels (e.g. SO2 and NOX), water pollution and biodiversity loss. These effects are fuel-specific.. For instance, natural gas, for instance, has approximately 40 % less carbon than coal per unit of energy content, and 25 % less carbon content than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur (see Figure 3 below). There are other environmental pressures coming from energy production: air pollution, land –use changes and crop-escape (that could result in large scale introduction of invasive species) from biomass, surface and groundwater pollution, ecosystem services and biodiversity loss, etc. The pressure on the environment and human health from energy consumption can be diminished by decreasing energy consumption and switching to energy sources that have a lower impact on the environment and human health.While nuclear power produces less greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution over the life cycle compared to conventional sources, there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases, and highly radioactive waste (for which no generally acceptable disposal route has yet been established) is accumulating.


Policy context

A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final)
Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 (COM(2011) 109 final)
Proposes additional measures to achieve the 20 % primary energy saving target by 2020.

Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final)
Energy efficiency is the first of the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.

Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents

  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community
  • Directive 2009/31/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide
  • Directive 2009/28/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • Directive 2008/101/ EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles


Large Combustion Plant Directive; Directive 2001/80/EC
Aims to control emissions of SO2, NOx and particulate matter from large combustion plants (> 50 MW).

Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778 final/2
Directive on intensification of existing regulation on energy-efficiency of products.

Energy Performance Buildings Directive; Directive 2002/91/EC
The Member States must apply minimum requirements as regards the energy performance of new and existing buildings, ensure the certification of their energy performance and require the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.

Energy Performance Buildings Directive (recast); Directive 2010/31/EU
Strengthens the energy performance requirements of the 2002 Directive.

Directive on GHG emissions of fuels and biofuels; COM(2007) 18 final/2
Sets targets for the GHG emissions from different fuel types (e.g. by improving refinery technologies) and allows the blending of up to 10 % of biofuels into diesel and petrol.

Targets

Related policy documents

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Methodology of data manipulation:
Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicator are:

  • Numerator: solid fuels 2000 gross inland consumption 100900 + oil 3000 gross inland consumption 100900 + gas 4000 gross inland consumption 100900 + nuclear energy 5100 gross inland consumption 100900 + renewable energies 5500 gross inland consumption 100900 + industrial waste 7100 gross inland consumption + 6000 electrical energy 100900 gross inland consumption.
  • Denominator: (total) gross inland consumption (of energy) 100900

Geographical coverage:
The Agency had 32 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

Temporal coverage: 1990-2009

Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data collected annually.
Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling necessary

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.

From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.

Total energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country (in terms of final energy demand). Fuel switching may in some cases have a significant effect in changing total energy consumption even though there is no change in (final) energy demand. This is because different fuels and different technologies convert primary energy into useful energy with different efficiency rates.

Data sets uncertainty

Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.

Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics.

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

Rationale uncertainty

 

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100