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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Primary energy consumption by fuel / Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Sep 2010

Primary energy consumption by fuel (CSI 029/ENER 026) - Assessment published Sep 2010

This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)
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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | csi | electricity | energy | lca
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 029
  • ENER 026
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2007, 2009
Geographic coverage:
Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption Europe?

Key messages

Fossil fuels continue to dominate total energy consumption in EU-27. Total gross inland energy consumption increased on average by 0.5 % per annum in the EU-27 during the period 1990-2007 (8.7% overall), thus offsetting some of the environmental benefits resulted from fuel switching. From 2006 to 2007, the gross inland energy consumption however decreased by 1.1 %. The share of fossil fuels in gross inland energy consumption in 2007 was 78.6%, compared to 83.1% in 1990. The share of renewable energy sources was 7.8 % of total gross inland consumption in 2007, almost double compared to 1990 (4.4%). The share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption increased slightly, to 13.4% in 2007 from 12.2 % in 1990.

Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27, 1990-2007

Note: Primary energy consumption by fuel in the EU-27, 1990-2007

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007

Note: Average annual growth rates for different fuels in the EU-27, 1990-2007 and 2006-2007

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2007

Note: Share of total energy consumption by fuel in 2007

Data source:

Eurostat.  Energy statistics: Supply, transformation, consumption - all products  - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

IEA. Total primary energy supply by product: IEA: http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP

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LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) emissions of energy technologies for electricity production

Note: LCA emissions of energy technologies for electricity production. Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, potential flooding and changed water levels from large hydro power) and the incineration of municipal waste (which is generally made up of both renewable and non-renewable material) may also generate local air pollution.

Data source:

EEA (2009) - Review and analysis of emissions' life cycle analysis studies in the field of conventional and renewable energy generation technologies. Copenhagen, EEA, February 2009

"Life Cycle Analysis of GHG and Air Pollutant Emissions from Renewable and Conventional Electricity, Heating, and Transport Fuel Options in the EU until 2030”, ETC/ACC Technical Paper 2009/18

http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/reports/docs//ETCACC_TP_2009_18_LCA_GHG_AE_2013-2030.pdf

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Key assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, total gross inland energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 8.7 %. Between 2006 and 2007 however, gross inland consumption decreased by 1.1 %, partly due a decrease in households energy consumption (see also ENER 16). For details see Figure 1 and Table 1. Due to a warmer weather and decreased household energy consumption in EU-27, the greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 1.2% in 2007 compared to 2006 (see also ENER01). For other emissions (ozone precursors, acidifying substances, particulate matter, etc see also ENER 05, ENER 06, ENER 07, ENER 08 and ENER 09)
  • Between 1990 and 2007, the share of fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil and natural gas) in gross inland consumption of the EU-27 declined slightly from 83.1 % in 1990 to 78.6 % in 2007. In absolute terms, the total amount of fossil fuels consumed increased by 2.9 % over the same period of time. During this period, the share of renewables in gross inland consumption increased from 4.4 % (1990) to 7.8 % (2007) (see also ENER 29) while the share of energy consumption from nuclear increased from 12.2 %(1990) to 13.4%(2007) (see also ENER13). From 2006 to 2007, the average annual growth rates have declined for shares of most fuels except renewable energy (which kept increasing at a brisk pace by 8.5%) and coal (whose share increased by 1.9% in contrast with the trend for the whole period). See Figure 2 for details.  
  • For the non-EU EEA member states, the gross inland energy consumption increased by 59.1 % mainly in Turkey. In 2007, in contrast to the EU-27, the gross inland energy consumption kept rising by 5.5 % compared to 2006. The shares by fuel in 2007 are comparable to the shares by fuel in the EU-27 countries, except for nuclear and renewables. In 2007, nuclear energy consumption accounted for 4.3 % in gross inland consumption of these countries. In contrast, renewables had a share of 19.2 %, higher than the EU-27 average, particularly because of Iceland and Norway where the shares are 74.9 % and 46.7 % respectively. 

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of solid fuels in total gross inland consumption in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • The share of coal and lignite in gross inland consumption in 2007 was 18.3 % compared to 27.3 % in 1990. Over this period, the absolute consumption of coal and lignite decreased by 26.9 % at an annual average rate of 1.8 %. Between 2006 and 2007 however, the share of solid fuels in gross inland consumption in the EU-27 increased by 1.9%. This increase may have been partly due to the narrowing of the gas – coal price differential (the main reason why there has been a significant switch from coal to gas in power generation). Increased use of solid fuels also has also implications for European import dependency as 41% of the coal based gross inland consumption was imported in 2007, mostly hard coal – 94% (see also ENER 12 for details).   

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of natural gas in total gross inland consumption increased from 17.7 % in 1990 to 23.9 % in 2007. Over the period, the consumption in natural gas increased by 46.6%, second highest rate after renewables. This is due to switching from coal to gas which occurred in the power generation sector (but not exclusively), triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). In absolute terms consumption increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 % over the period 1990-2007. However, between 2006 and 2007, the consumption of natural gas decreased by 1.3% (see Figure 2 below). Natural gas use also has implications for European import dependency as 60% of the gas-based gross inland consumption was imported in 2007 (see also ENER 12 for details). The increased penetration of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), although does not reduce the dependency on imports, it does help in diversifying suppliers. For instance, LNG is already becoming a significant source of energy in Spain with main supplying countries including Trinidad Tobago, Qatar, Algeria, Egypt and Nigeria.

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of crude oil and petroleum products in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of Oil (crude oil and petroleum products) decreased from 38.1 % in 1990 to 36.4 % in 2007 and continues to be the major primary fuel in the transport sector. In absolute terms, consumption increased at an average annual rate of 0.2 % over the period 1990-2007, mainly as a result of increased demand for petrol and diesel in the transport sector, increase partially offset by a decline in the use of oil power generation. Between 2006 and 2007, the oil consumption decreased by 2.4%, partly because of an increase in biofuels consumption in the transport sector and partially because of the overall decrease in gross inland energy consumption. In 2007, the share of crude oil and oil products in total gross energy consumption was the lowest since 1995. In EU-27, in 2007, 90% of the crude oil and oil products consumed were imported (see also ENER 12). 

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of renewables in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  •  The renewables share in total gross inland consumption increased from 4.4 % in 1990 to 7.8 % in 2007 (see also ENER 29). Renewables (together with natural gas) were the fastest growing energy source between 1990 and 2007 due primarily to environmental and security of supply concerns as well as economic reasons in the case of natural gas. However, despite increased support at the EU and national level, their contribution in total gross inland consumption remains low at 7.8 % in 2007. In absolute terms consumption increased at an average annual rate of 3.9 % over the period 1990-2007. In recent years however, the pace of renewable penetration in EU-27 accelerated. Between 2006 and 2007, the consumption from renewable energy increased by 8.5%, double the average rate over the whole period 1990-2007.

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the share of nuclear energy in total gross inland consumption?

Specific assessment

  • The share of nuclear energy increased from 12.2 % in 1990 to 13.4 % in 2007. In absolute terms, energy consumption from nuclear increased at an average annual rate of 1.0 % over the period 1990-2007. While nuclear power produces less greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution over the life cycle compared to conventional sources, there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases, and highly radioactive waste (for which no generally acceptable disposal route has yet been established) is accumulating. In 2007, 34,216 tonnes of heavy metals contained in high level nuclear waste was in storage, up 13.2% from 2005 (see also ENER 13).

 

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2009 2.9.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year in October-December (Q4)

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100