Primary energy consumption by fuel

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: CSI 029 , ENER 026
Created 05 Oct 2015 Published 21 Oct 2015 Last modified 21 Oct 2015, 01:45 PM
Topics: ,
Primary energy consumption is defined as gross inland energy consumption minus the energy consumed for purposes other than producing useful energy (non-energy use). Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total primary energy consumption calculated for a calendar year.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

The structure of the energy mix in primary energy consumption provides an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of fuel consumed as well as on the abatement technologies applied.

Scientific references

Indicator definition

Primary energy consumption is defined as gross inland energy consumption minus the energy consumed for purposes other than producing useful energy (non-energy use). Gross inland energy consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy the inland consumption of a country. It is calculated as the sum of the gross inland consumption of energy from solid fuels, oil, gas, nuclear and renewable sources, and a small component of ‘other’ sources (industrial waste and net imports of electricity). The relative contribution of a specific fuel is measured by the ratio between the energy consumption originating from that specific fuel and the total primary energy consumption calculated for a calendar year.

Units

Energy consumption is measured in million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe). The share of each fuel in total energy consumption is presented in the form of a percentage.

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The level, evolution and structure of primary energy consumption provide an indication of the extent to which environmental pressures caused by energy production and consumption are likely to diminish or not. This indicator displays data disaggregated by fuel type as the associated environmental impacts are fuel-specific.

The consumption of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, oil products, hard coal, lignite and natural and derived gas) leads to resource depletion and emissions of greenhouse gases as well as emissions of air pollutants (e.g. SO2 and NOX). This in turn has negative consequences for public health and biodiversity. The degree of environmental impact depends on the relative share of different fossil fuels and the extent to which pollution abatement measures are used. Natural gas, for instance, has approximately 40% less carbon than coal per unit of energy content, and 25% less carbon content than oil, and contains only marginal quantities of sulphur.

Increasing consumption of nuclear energy at the expense of fossil fuels contributes to greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but comes with safety and nuclear waste issues.

Renewable energy consumption is more environmentally benign, as the exploitation of renewables does not give rise to greenhouse gas emissions (except land-use change issues related to biomass and emissions related to the use of non-renewable energy during the construction of renewable energy installations). Renewables usually lead to significantly lower levels of air pollutants (except when related to biomass applications). Renewable energy can, however, have impacts on landscapes and ecosystems (for example, wind turbines severely impact the landscape and much land is needed for the production of biomass and may have an impact on biodiversity).

Policy context

  • Communication from the commission to the European parliament and the Council – Energy Union Package - A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy, COM(2015) 80 final.
  • Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, sets, among others, targets for primary energy and final energy for the EU as a whole (Art. 3) and puts an obligation on Member States to meet a 1.5% energy efficiency improvement per year between 2013 and 2020 (Art. 7).
  • Council Directive 2013/12/EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia. This revision of the Energy Efficiency Directive was necessary to account for the accession of Croatia to the EU.
  • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources specifies mandatory targets for Member States regarding the share of renewable energy that must be realised by 2020.
  • Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council - European Energy Security Strategy, COM/2014/0330 final, describes the EU strategy to ensure that energy supplies are uninterrupted and energy prices remain stable.
  • A roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final) presents a roadmap for action in line with an 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.
  • Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy (COM(2010) 639 final). Energy efficiency is the first of the five priorities of the new energy strategy defined by the Commission.
  • Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emissions allowance trading scheme of the Community describes legislation regarding the trading of CO2-emission credits by large companies.
  • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emissions allowance trading within the community.
  • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • Regulation (EC) no 510/2011 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • Energy Performance Buildings Directive (recast); Directive 2010/31/EU strengthens the energy performance requirements of the 2002 Directive.
  • Large Combustion Plant Directive; Directive 2001/80/EC aims to control emissions of SO2, NOx and particulate matter from large combustion plants (> 50 MW).
  • Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products. It establishes energy efficiency standards for various categories of products, such as dishwashers and refrigerators.
  • Directive 2010/75/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) sets emissions limits for industrial installations.
  • Commission Guidance COM(2013) 762, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and Council, Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive.

Targets

The Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of a 20% reduction in primary energy consumption. The EU28 target is to limit primary energy consumption to 1 483 PJ* in 2020. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member States whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. Generally Member States have set indicative targets for primary energy consumption as well as final energy consumption.

*PJ = Petajoule (one quadrillion joules).

Related policy documents

  • 2008/101/EC
    Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • 2009/29/ec
    Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • 2009/125/EC - Ecodesign Directive
    The Ecodesign Directive is a framework Directive: it does not set binding requirements on products by itself, but through  implementing measures  adopted on a case by case basis for each product group. All guiding principles for developing implementing measures are set in the  framework Directive 2009/125/EC . The list of product groups to be addressed through implementing measures is established in the periodic  Working Plan .  Standardisation  supports the implementation of the Ecodesign Directive (notably through harmonised standards giving presumption of conformity with all or some Ecodesign legal requirements).
  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
    With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
  • COM(2010) 639 final: Energy 2020 – A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
    A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy
  • COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
    Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
  • COM(2013) 762 final; COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL
    Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive – Commission Guidance {SWD(2013) 445 final} {SWD(2013) 446 final} {SWD(2013) 447 final} {SWD(2013) 448 final} {SWD(2013) 449 final} {SWD(2013) 450 final} {SWD(2013) 451 final}
  • COM(2014) 330 final
    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council "European Energy Security Strategy" describes  the EU strategy to ensure that energy supplies are uninterrupted and energy prices remain stable. Brussels, 28 May 2014. 
  • COM(2015) 80 final
    Energy Union Package, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank "A Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Change Policy", COM(2015) 80 final, 25 February 2015. Energy Union Package establishes a Framework Strategy for a Resilient Energy Union with a Forward-Looking Climate Policy. It includes a road map which sets actions for: SoS: Security of Supply / IEM: Internal Energy Market / EE: Energy Efficiency / GHG: Greenhouse gases / R&I: Research and Innovation.  
  • COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/12/EU
    COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2013/12/EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency,  by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia
  • DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC
    DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
  • Directive 2010/30/EU
    Energy labelling directive Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products
  • DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU - Energy performance of buildings directive
    DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings(recast)
  • Directive 2010/75/EC on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control)
    The IED is the successor of the IPPC Directive and in essence, it is about minimising pollution from various industrial sources throughout the European Union. Operators of industrial installations operating activities covered by Annex I of the IED are required to obtain an integrated permit from the authorities in the EU countries. About 50.000 installations were covered by the IPPC Directive and the IED will cover some new activities which could mean the number of installations rising slightly.
  • Directive 2012/27/eu
    DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
  • Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997
  • REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011
    REGULATION (EU) No 510/2011 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL setting emission performance standards for new light commercial vehicles as part of the Union's integrated approach to reduce CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

Key policy question

What are the trends concerning the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption in Europe?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Technical information

  1. Geographical coverage:
    The European Environment Agency had 33 member countries at the time of writing this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland.
  2. Methodology and frequency of data collection:
    Data is collected annually.
    Eurostat definitions for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm
  3. Methodology of data manipulation:
    Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100

    The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - All Products
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Solid Fuels
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Total petroleum products
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Gas
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Nuclear heat
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Electrical energy
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Derived heat
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Renewable energies
    • B_100900 - Gross inland consumption - Waste (non-renewable)
    • B_101600 - Final Non-energy consumption - All products
    • B_101600 - Final Non-energy consumption - Solid fuels
    • B_101600 - Final Non-energy consumption - Total petroleum products
    • B_101600 - Final Non-energy consumption - Gas
    • B_101600 - Final Non-energy consumption - Renewable energies


    This data is extracted from Eurostat datasets nrg_100a and nrg_108a.

    Qualitative information

Overall scoring – historical data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):

  • Relevance: 1
  • Accuracy: 1
  • Comparability over time: 1      
  • Comparability over space: 1

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling necessary

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

The share of energy consumption for a particular fuel could decrease even though the actual amount of energy used from that fuel grows, as the development of the share for a particular fuel depends on the change in its consumption relative to the total consumption of energy.

From an environmental point of view, however, the relative contribution of each fuel has to be put in the wider context. Absolute (as opposed to relative) volumes of energy consumption for each fuel are the key to understanding the environmental pressures. These depend on the total amount of energy consumption as well as on the fuel mix used and the extent to which pollution abatement technologies are used.

Gross inland energy consumption may not accurately represent the energy needs of a country in terms of final energy demand. Fuel switching may, in some cases, have a significant effect in changing gross inland energy consumption even though there is no change in final energy demand. 

Data sets uncertainty

Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses.

Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics.

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

In circumstances where data for one or more of the non-EU EEA countries is unavailable, this country is left out of totals for non-EU EEA or for the EEA as a whole.

Rationale uncertainty

The structure of the energy mix in gross inland energy consumption provides an indication of the environmental pressures associated with energy consumption. The type and magnitude of the environmental impacts associated with energy consumption, such as resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of fuel consumed as well as on the abatement technologies applied.

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CSI 029
ENER 026
Specification
Version id: 4
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Permalinks

Permalink to this version
911cebb6417c4de5a1d30ab2e087da6b
Permalink to latest version
MP742G2JU3

Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)

Related content

Data references used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

Filed under:
Subscriptions
Sign up to receive our reports (print and/or electronic) and quarterly e-newsletter.
Follow us
 
 
 
 
 
Log in


Forgot your password?
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100