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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Final energy consumption intensity

Final energy consumption intensity

Topics: ,
Contents
 

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Justification for indicator selection

Historically, economic growth influenced final energy consumption in the end-use sectors, particularly transport, industry and services. Final energy consumption of households is driven by disposable income (a function of economic growth), population, the number of households and size of the dwellings. The indicator measures to what extent there is a decoupling between final energy consumption in various sectors and these drivers. A decoupling of final energy consumption from economic growth indicates a reduction in environmental pressures from energy production and consumption due to avoided supply of energy.

Scientific references:

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

 

Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, and services and agriculture.

Total final energy intensity is defined as total final energy consumption (consumption of transformed energy such as electricity, publicly supplied heat, refined oil products, coke, etc., and the direct use of primary fuels such as gas or renewables, e.g. solar heat or biomass) divided by gross domestic product (GDP) at constant 2005 prices. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2005.

    • Household energy intensity is defined as household final energy consumption divided by population.
    • Transport energy intensity is defined as transport final energy consumption divided by GDP at constant 2005 prices.
    • Industry energy intensity is defined as industry final energy consumption divided by industry Gross Value Added at constant 2005 prices. This excludes final energy consumption and gross value added from construction. 
    • Services energy intensity is defined as services final energy consumption divided by services Gross Value Added at constant 2005 prices. Value added of services is the sum of 3 value added :
      • G_H_I : Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport, storage and communication,
      • J_K - Financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities and
      • L_TO_P - Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons

    Units

    Final energy consumption is measured in 1000 tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) and GDP in million Euro at 2000 market prices. Energy intensity is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent per million Euro (GDP or GVA), except in the case of household energy intensity which is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent per 1000 people

    Policy context and targets

    Context description

      Environmental context

      The Europe 2020 growth growth strategy aims to address shortcoming of the European economic model while creating coditions for smarter, more sustainable and inclusive growth. Achieving these goals simultaneously requires decoupling the economic growth from energy-consumption. This indicator shows the extent to which this is happening (or not) for the four main sectors (for definitions for each sector please see the “Methodology” section): households, services and agriculture, industry and transport. Relative decoupling occurs when energy consumption grows, but more slowly than the underlying driver. Absolute decoupling occurs when energy consumption is stable or falls while the driver grows.

      A shift towards absolute decoupling would indicate that pressures on the environment from energy production and consumption are decreasing (because of avoided energy supply) but the magnitude of the impact depends both on the total amount of avoided energy consumption as well as the implications for the energy mix (in other words which fuels have been used less because of the reduction in final energy consumption).

      Policy context

      The Directive 2012/27/eu on Energy Efficiency amending Directives 2009/125/ec and 2010/30/eu and repealing Directives 2004/8/ec and 2006/32/ec establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in gross inland energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

      Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 (COM(2011) 109 final). Proposes additional measures to achieve the 20 % primary energy saving target by 2020.

      A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 (COM(2011) 112 final). Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050.

      Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents:

        • Directive 2009/29/ECof the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
        • Directive 2009/31/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
        • Directive 2009/28/EC of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
        • Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01).
        • Directive 2008/101/EC of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
        • Regulation (EC) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

        Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final. Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.

        Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778 final/2. Directive on intensification of existing regulation on energy-efficiency of products.

        Energy Performance Buildings Directive; Directive 2002/91/EC. The Member States must apply minimum requirements as regards the energy performance of new and existing buildings, ensure the certification of their energy performance and require the regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning systems in buildings.

        Energy Performance Buildings Directive (recast); Directive 2010/31/EU. Strengthens the energy performance requirements of the 2002 Directive.

        Targets

        The Directive 2012/27/eu on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in gross inland energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

        Related policy documents

        • 443/2009
          Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
        • 2002/91/EC
          Energy Performance Buildings Directive
        • 2006/32/EC
          Energy Services Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC
        • 2008/101/EC
          Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
        • 2008/c 82/01
          Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
        • 2009/28/EC
          Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
        • 2009/29/ec
          Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
        • 2009/31/EC
          Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
        • COM (2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050
          With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades.
        • COM(2008) 778
          Eco-Design Directive; COM(2008) 778
        • COM(2008) 781
          COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
        • COM(2011) 109 final: Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
          Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
        • COM(2011) 370 final Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency and repealing Directives
           
        • DIRECTIVE 2005/32/EC
          The Directive establises a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amends Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
        • DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU - Energy performance of buildings directive
          DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings(recast)

        Key policy question

        Has there been a decoupling between economic growth and final energy consumption in Europe?

        Methodology

        Methodology for indicator calculation

        Technical information

               

        • Description of data / Indicator definition:
          Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, and services and agriculture.
          Total final energy intensity is defined as total final energy consumption (consumption of transformed energy such as electricity, publicly supplied heat, refined oil products, coke, etc, and the direct use of primary fuels such as gas or renewables, e.g. solar heat or biomass) divided by gross domestic product (GDP) at constant 2000 prices. The GDP figures are taken at constant prices to avoid the impact of inflation, base year 2000.

            • Household energy intensity is defined as household final energy consumption divided by population.

            • Transport energy intensity is defined as transport final energy consumption divided by GDP at constant 2000 prices.

            • Industry energy intensity is defined as industry final energy consumption divided by industry Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. This excludes final energy consumption and gross value added from construction.

            • Services energy intensity is defined as services final energy consumption divided by services Gross Value Added at constant 2000 prices. Value added of services is the sum of 3 value added:

        G_H_I : Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods; hotels and restaurants; transport, storage and communication, J_K - Financial intermediation; real estate, renting and business activities and L_TO_P - Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; education; health and social work; other community, social and personal service activities; private households with employed persons

         

        Units:
        Final energy consumption is measured in 1000 tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) and GDP in million Euro at 2000 market prices. Energy intensity is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent per million Euro (GDP or GVA), except in the case of household energy intensity which is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent per 1000 people.

        • Geographical coverage:
          The Agency had 32 member countries. These are the 27 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Norway. Iceland and Liechtenstein are not covered in this factsheet due to lack of data for recent years..

         

        • Temporal coverage: 1990-2011

         

         

                Methodology of data manipulation:
        The coding (used in the Eurostat New Cronos database) and specific components of the indicators are:

        • Total final energy intensity: final energy consumption 101700 divided by the gross domestic product, conducted from the Eurostat datasheets (b1gm Gross domestic product at 2000 market prices mio_eur_clv2000)           

        • Household energy intensity: Final energy consumption households 102010 divided by PJAN Population by sex and age on 1. January of each year.

        • Transport energy intensity: Final energy consumption transport 101900 divided by B1GMGDPand main components - Constant   2000 prices.

        • Industry energy intensity: Final energy consumption industry 101800 divided by the gross value added for industry conducted from the Eurostat datasheets (NACE C_D_E Total industry GVA)

        • Services energy intensity: Final energy consumption Services and Others 102035, 102040 divided by the gross value added of services (Wholesale and retail trade, Financial intermediation; Public administration and defence: NACE G to P)

        • Agriculture energy intensity: Final energy consumption Agriculture, fisheries 102030, 102020 divided by the gross value added of agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing –NACE A_B

        The gross value added (GVA) for Industry, Agriculture and Tertiary and GDP are not available in Eurostat for all the countries before 1995. GDP before 1995 has been calculated with GDP growth rate published by country by the World Bank (Reference World Development Indicators 2011). GDP for EU-27 is the sum of countries.

         

         Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year / base year) ^ (1 / number of years) –1]*100.

         

        Qualitative information

        • Strength and weaknesses (at data level)
          Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

         

        • Reliability, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level):
          Indicator uncertainty (historic data)
          The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. To be consistent with projection data, the indicator aggregates agriculture, fisheries and other sectors together with the services sector. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends.
          Because the main focus of the indicator is on trends, energy intensity is presented as an index. It should be noted that the final energy intensities between sectors, and also the total final energy intensity, are not directly comparable, because as described above, the definitions of energy intensity within each sector not identical. The indicator serves to highlight the evolution in energy intensity within each sector.

         

        • Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):

                        Relevance: 1

                        Accuracy: 1

                        Comparability over time: 2

                        Comparability over space: 2

          Methodology for gap filling

          No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.

          Methodology references

          No methodology references available.

          Data specifications

          EEA data references

          • No datasets have been specified here.

          External data references

          Data sources in latest figures

          Uncertainties

          Methodology uncertainty

          The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. To be consistent with projection data, the indicator aggregates agriculture, fisheries and other sectors together with the services sector. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends.

          Because the main focus of the indicator is on trends, energy intensity is presented as an index. It should be noted that the final energy intensities between sectors, and also the total final energy intensity, are not directly comparable, because as described above, the definitions of energy intensity within each sector not identical. The indicator serves to highlight the evolution in energy intensity within each sector.

          Data sets uncertainty

          Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found in Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/en/nrg_quant_esms.htm

          Rationale uncertainty

          No uncertainty has been specified

          Further work

          Short term work

          Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

          Long term work

          Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

          General metadata

          Responsibility and ownership

          EEA Contact Info

          Anca-Diana Barbu

          Ownership

          European Environment Agency (EEA)

          Identification

          Indicator code
          ENER 021
          Specification
          Version id: 2
          Primary theme: Energy Energy

          Permalinks

          Permalink to this version
          2f14c71d1b594d27818e8ef180345ef6
          Permalink to latest version
          TITHQT40FF

          Frequency of updates

          Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)

          Classification

          DPSIR: Driving force
          Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)

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          Geographical coverage

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