Final energy consumption by sector and fuel
Published (reviewed and quality assured)
Justification for indicator selection
This indicator tracks the progress made towards reducing energy consumption in the different end-use sectors. Indirectly, the indicator shows the progress (or lack of) towards reducing the associated environmental impacts of energy production as a result of a reduction in energy consumption. It can be used to monitor progress in the implementation of energy efficiency and energy conservation policies. In the EU-28, the calculation of both greenhouse gas emissions and renewable targets for 2020 entails a certain level of energy efficiency/conservation.
- No rationale references available
Final energy consumption covers the energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of the final energy consumption of all sectors. These sectors are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio of the final energy consumption of that sector to the total final energy consumption, calculated for each calendar year. It is a useful indicator that highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
Final energy consumption is measured in million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe).
Policy context and targets
The trends in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provide a broad indication of progress towards reducing final energy consumption and the associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, etc.) on the environment depend on both the sources of energy and the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy by reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity), or a combination of these.
- The 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive established a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20 % energy efficiency target by 2020. Under the Directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain, from its production to its final consumption. To reach the EU's 20 % energy efficiency target by 2020, individual EU countries have set their own indicative national energy efficiency targets. Depending on country preferences, these targets are based on primary and/or final energy consumption, primary and/or final energy savings, or energy intensity. New national measures have to ensure major energy savings for consumers and industry. To help officials in EU countries implement the Energy Efficiency Directive, the European Commission publishes guidance notes:
Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC;
Commission Guidance COM(2013) 762, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and Council, Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive;
Council Directive 2013/12/EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia.
- Earlier legislation: in 2009, the Council adopted the climate–energy legislative package that contains measures to tackle climate change and promote renewable energy use. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and a level of renewable energy use that is 20 % of the EU's total energy consumption by 2020. The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents:
Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community;
Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide;
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources;
Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01);
Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the community;
Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
- Second Strategic Energy Review (COM(2008) 781 final) — strategic review on short-, medium- and long-term targets on EU energy security.
- Sustainable production and consumption action plan (COM(2008) 397 final) — this strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote sustainable industrial policy.
- EEA, 2014a, Focusing on environmental pressures from long‑distance transport — TERM 2014: transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
- EEA, 2014b, Monitoring CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013
- EEA, 2014c, Trends and projections in Europe 2014 — Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets for 2020
Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the EU in order to achieve the headline target of a 20 % reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to Member States to decide whether to base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings, or energy intensity.
Related policy documents
Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
Sustainable production and consumption action plan
COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC
Key policy question
Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?
Methodology for indicator calculation
- Data sources:
Final energy consumption — Eurostat (historical data) (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/).
Final energy consumption, non-European countries — International Energy Agency (IEA) (http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP).
Final energy consumption is one of the EEA’s core-set indicators (more information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI).
- Description of data/indicator definition:
Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture. The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.
- Geographical coverage:
The EEA had 33 member countries at the time of writing: the 28 EU Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Note that no data are included for Switzerland or Liechtenstein because of a lack of Eurostat data. The table in Figure 8 also includes data for the world as a whole, and Africa, the Middle East, China, India, Russia and the United States.
- Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data are collected annually.
Eurostat metadata were used for energy statistics (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata).
- Methodology for data manipulation:
The average annual rate of growth was calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) – 1]*100.
- The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
• Numerator: [final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture]; 'agriculture' calculated as [final energy consumption agriculture/forestry 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + final energy consumption – other sectors 102000].
• Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700 (only if needed to calculate proportions).
This was done for '0000 — All products'; '3000 — Total petroleum products'; '6000 — Electrical energy'; '4100 — Natural gas'; and '2000 — Solid fuels'.
The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
• Reports: 'Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries' and 'Energy Balances of OECD countries'; Names: 'Energy Balances'; 'Product: Total'; 'Flow'; 'Final Consumption — Flow'; and 'Memo: Feedstock use in the petrochemical industry'.
The estimated indicative national targets for 2020 are based on the national energy efficiency plans for 2014, or earlier if not available for 2014 (https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-directive/national-energy-efficiency-action-plans).
Methodology for gap filling
No gap filling was applied.
No methodology references available.
EEA data references
- No datasets have been specified here.
External data references
- Final Energy Consumption non European countries (IEA)
- Energy statistics - supply, transformation and consumption
Data sources in latest figures
Reliability, accuracy, robustness and uncertainty (at data level)
Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors has to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral share also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) are preferred, as they provide more meaningful indicators of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes the industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. However, the inclusion of the agriculture and fisheries sectors together with the services sector is questionable given the divergent trends of these sectors. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that, according to Eurostat, data on final energy consumption in agriculture are not very reliable and mainly reflect means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in energy questionnaires that is more in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines.
Overall scoring — historic data (1 = no major problems; 3 = major reservations):
Comparability over time: 1
Comparability over space: 1.
Data sets uncertainty
Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)
Officially reported data are updated annually and have no obvious weaknesses.
Traditionally, data have been compiled by Eurostat through the annual 'Joint Questionnaires', shared by Eurostat and the IEA, following a well-established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on these annual questionnaires and data compilation can be found on Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata). Information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation is also available online (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction).
No uncertainty has been specified
Short term work
Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.
Long term work
Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.
Responsibility and ownership
EEA Contact InfoAnca-Diana Barbu
Frequency of updates
ClassificationDPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/final-energy-consumption-by-sector-9 or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 23 Apr 2017, 10:49 AM