Final energy consumption by sector and fuel

Indicator Specification
Indicator codes: CSI 027 , ENER 016
Created 31 Aug 2015 Published 21 Oct 2015 Last modified 24 May 2016, 04:35 PM
Topics: ,
Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture. The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Assessment versions

Published (reviewed and quality assured)

Rationale

Justification for indicator selection

This indicator tracks the progress made in reducing energy consumption in the different end-use sectors. Indirectly, the indicator shows progress (or lack of) in reducing the associated environmental impacts of energy production as a result of avoided energy supply. It can be used to monitor progress in the implementation of energy efficiency and energy conservation policies. In the EU28, the calculation of both greenhouse gas emissions and renewable targets for 2020 entails a certain level of energy efficiency/conservation.

Scientific references

  • No rationale references available

Indicator definition

Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.

The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured as the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Units

Final energy consumption is measured in million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe).

Policy context and targets

Context description

Environmental context

The trend in final energy consumption by fuel type and by sector provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The type and magnitude of energy-related pressures on the environment (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, etc.) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One way of reducing energy-related pressures on the environment is to use less energy. This may result from reducing the demand for energy services (e.g. heat demand, passenger or freight transport) or by using energy in a more efficient way (thereby using less energy per unit of activity) or a combination of these.

Policy context

  • The 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive established a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. Under the Directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain, from its production to its final consumption. To reach the EU's 20% energy efficiency target by 2020, individual EU countries have set their own indicative national energy efficiency targets. Depending on country preferences, these targets are based on primary and/or final energy consumption, primary and/or final energy savings or energy intensity. New national measures have to ensure major energy savings for consumers and industry. To help officials in EU countries implement the Energy Efficiency Directive, the European Commission publishes guidance notes; COM(2013) 762.

Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC Text with EEA relevance.
Commission Guidance COM(2013) 762, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and Council, Implementing the Energy Efficiency Directive.
Council Directive 2013/12/EU of 13 May 2013 adapting Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy efficiency, by reason of the accession of the Republic of Croatia.

  • Earlier legislation: in 2009 the council adopted the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20% reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents.

Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01).
Directive 2008/101/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the community. 
Regulation (EC) No. 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community’s integrated approach to reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.

  • Second Strategic Energy Review COM(2008) 781 final
    Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
  • Sustainable production and consumption action plan COM(2008) 397 final
    The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote its sustainable industrial policy.
     

EEA references

Targets

The Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union in order to achieve the headline target of 20% reduction in primary energy consumption. Member States are requested to set indicative targets. It is up to the Member States whether they base their targets on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity.

Related policy documents

  • Climate action and renewable energy package (CARE Package)
    Combating climate change is a top priority for the EU. Europe is working hard to cut its greenhouse gas emissions substantially while encouraging other nations and regions to do likewise.
  • COM(2008) 397
    Sustainable production and consumption action plan
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review
  • Directive 2012/27/eu
    DIRECTIVE 2012/27/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC

Key policy question

Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Technical information
  1. Data source:
    Final Energy Consumption: Eurostat (historical data) http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ 
    Final Energy Consumption, non European countries: IEA http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP
    Final energy consumption is one of the European Environment Agency’s core-set indicators. More information can be found at http://themes.eea.eu.int/IMS/CSI.
  2. Description of data/indicator definition:
    Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
    The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator, which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand. 
  3. Geographical coverage:
    The EEA had 33 member countries at the time of writing of this fact sheet. These are the 28 European Union Member States and Turkey, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Note that no data is included for Switzerland and Liechtenstein due to lack of data in Eurostat. Table 1 also covers data for the world, Africa, the Middle-East, China, India, Russia and the United States.
  4. Methodology and frequency of data collection: 
    Data collected annually.
    Eurostat metadata for energy statistics http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata
  5. Methodology of data manipulation:
    Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
  6. The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture/forestry 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + final energy consumption - Other Sectors 102000.
    • Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700.
    This was done for 0000 All-products; 3000 - Total petroleum products, 6000 - Electrical energy, 4100 - Natural gas and 2000 - Solid fuels.

    The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:
    • Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total; Flow; Final Consumption – Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in the petrochemical industry.

    The estimated indicative national targets for 2020 are based on the National Energy Efficiency Plans for 2014 or earlier when not available; see https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficiency-directive/national-energy-efficiency-action-plans.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling was applied.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

  • No datasets have been specified here.

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Reliability, accuracy, robustness and uncertainty (at data level)

Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral share also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat, final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. A new definition is now used in energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines.

Overall scoring – historic data (1 = no major problems, 3 = major reservations):
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 1
Comparability over time: 1
Comparability over space: 1

Data sets uncertainty

Strengths and weaknesses (at data level)

Officially reported data, updated annually. No obvious weaknesses. 
Data has been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires, shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency, following a well established and harmonised methodology. Methodological information on the annual Joint Questionnaires and data compilation can be found on Eurostat's web page for metadata on energy statistics. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/metadata. See also information related to the Energy Statistics Regulation available from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/introduction

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Anca-Diana Barbu

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CSI 027
ENER 016
Specification
Version id: 5
Primary theme: Energy Energy

Permalinks

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Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Filed under:
European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100