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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Final energy consumption by sector / Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Feb 2013

Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Feb 2013

Topics: ,

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
fuels | energy consumption | natural gas | electricity | ghg retrospective | solid fuels | energy
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2010
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2010, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 7.1% (10.2% in EEA countries) at an annual average rate of 0.3% (0.5% for EEA countries).The final energy consumption in EU-27 decreased by 3.2% between 2005 and 2010 (2.1% in EEA countries). The services sector was the sector with the fastest growing energy consumption (41.4% over the period 1990-2010 and 12.2% over the period 2005-2010). Final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2010 was 29.8% higher than 1990 levels but the sector registered a 0.5 % fall in energy consumption between 2009 and 2010 despite signs of mild economic recovery. Over the same period (1990-2010), household final energy consumption increased by 12.4% while final consumption in industry fell by 20.5%. Overall, in the last year, final energy consumption in EU-27 increased, but still remained below the level in 2006 (the year where energy consumption peaked in Europe). On average, one person in the EEA countries used 2.2 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2010.

Total final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2010

Note: Consists of 5 figures that show the total final energy consumption, final energy consumption of petroleum products, final energy consumption of electricity, final energy consumption of natural gas and final energy consumption of solid fuel, all by sector in the EU-27.

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Final energy consumption by fuel type in the EU-27, 1990-2010

Note: The figure shows the final energy consumption by fuel type

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Note: Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27. TOE refers to Tonnes of Oil equivalent. Data for Iceland and Liechtenstein was not available from EUROSTAT.

Data source:
Downloads and more info

Key assessment

    Between 1990 and 2010, total final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 7.1% (0.3% annually), off-setting some of the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements. The increase in energy consumption in the EEA countries during the same period was slightly higher at 10.2% (0.5 % annually). Between 2005 and 2010, the picture is more promising with a 2.1% decline for EEA32 and 3.2% decline for the EU27. To a certain degree the observed fall is linked to the economic recession. Between 2009 and 2010 total final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 3.7% and 3.9 % in the EEA countries (see Figure 3) mainly due to a mild recovery from the recession which led to a large fall in energy consumption between 2008 and 2009. Such trends clearly show the strong link between economic growth and energy consumption.  

    Between 1990 and 2010 the largest increases in energy consumption in the EU-27 occurred in the services and transport, 41.4% and 29.8%, respectively (43.8% and 30.7% in the EEA32). In the services sector, energy consumption increased due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. In the transport sector, the increase was observed as a result of improvements in fuel efficiency being offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (both domestic and international) represented about 13.6% of final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2010 and grew by about 69% (2.7% annually) between 1990 and 2010. Of the major sectors, the largest fall in energy consumption between 1990 and 2010 took place in the industry sector, where total final energy consumption fell by 20.5%, at an annual average rate of 1.1% in the EU-27. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, the continuing transition to a more service-oriented European economy, as well as the effects of the economic recession in recent years. Between 2005 and 2010, energy consumption in the services sector increased by 12.2% in the EU-27 (12.3% in the EEA32). It is the only sector which saw a significant increase in energy consumption in the last 5 years. In 2010, the transport sector accounted for 31.7% of total final energy consumption in the EU-27 Member States followed by the household sector (26.6%), the industrial sector (25.3%) and the service sector (13.2%) (see Figure 1).

    The observed trend differs significantly across the member countries of the EEA32 (see Figure 3). Turkey experienced the largest increase in energy consumption between 1990 and 2010 with 89.6 % mainly because of a strong industry development, followed by Cyprus (76.4%) and Ireland (61.3%). On the other hand, Lithuania and Estonia experienced the largest decrease with 50.9 % and 49.8 % respectively because of the de-industrialisation of the country. Between 2005 and 2010 Malta, Turkey and Poland experienced, by far, the largest increase (15.9%, 14.9% and 14.0% respectively) whereas Romania and Bulgaria experienced the largest decrease with 9.9%.

      From a fuel perspective, it is the demand for electricity that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms (see Figure 2). Since 1990, there has been a 31.9% increase (2.4% since 2005) in final energy consumption of electricity. This has been largely as a result of the increase in consumption in the services and households sector. In the services sector, in particular, electricity consumption has increased 93.2% because new appliances, which have proliferated in the households and services sector since 1990, are mostly run on electricity. Interestingly, a significant proportion of the increase has taken place in the last five years and between 2005 and 2010 (17.1% increase). Consumption of natural gas has also increased in the EU-27 during 1990-2010 (24.8%). Although the transport sector had the largest increase of natural gas consumption the increase in the service and household sectors are more significant overall because of the contribution they make to absolute total consumption. These two sectors experienced an increase of 80% and 56.7% respectively between 1990 and 2010 growing at an average rate of 3 and 2.2% per year. In 2010, the household sector had the largest share of final energy consumption of natural gas for the EU-27 at 45.6% as a result of increase in the use of gas for residential heating. On the contrary solid fuels had the largest decrease in consumption (60.5%) between 1990 and 2010 (8.7% since 2005). The largest absolute reductions have been observed in the industry and households sectors. This is as a result of the switching from coal to gas, triggered by environmental concerns and economic reasons (price differential between coal and gas in 1990s). Consumption of oil has increased slightly during 1990 and 2010 (2.7%) but has fallen in the last five years (8.6%). Underlying this increase in final energy consumption in the transport sector is the large increase in petroleum fuels (see Figure 1). Between 1990 and 2010, there has been an increase in petroleum fuels in the transport sector of 24.8%, increasing at an average annual rate of increase of 1.1%. The transport sector is now responsible for a 75.3 % share of petroleum consumption in 2010.  

      For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the TERM report (http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/foundations-for-greener-transport)

      .

          Data sources

          More information about this indicator

          See this indicator specification for more details.

          Contacts and ownership

          EEA Contact Info

          Anca-Diana Barbu

          Ownership

          EEA Management Plan

          2012 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

          Dates

          Frequency of updates

          Updates are scheduled every 1 year in October-December (Q4)
          Document Actions
          European Environment Agency (EEA)
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