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Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Aug 2011

Indicator Assessment Created 02 Aug 2011 Published 08 Aug 2011 Last modified 19 Dec 2014, 04:07 PM
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Contents
 

Indicator definition

Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer for all energy uses. It is calculated as the sum of final energy consumption of all sectors. These are disaggregated to cover industry, transport, households, services and agriculture.
The indicator can be presented in relative or absolute terms. The relative contribution of a specific sector is measured by the ratio between the final energy consumption of that sector and total final energy consumption calculated for a calendar year. It is a useful indicator which highlights a country's sectoral needs in terms of final energy demand.

Units

Final energy consumption is measured in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe).


Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2008, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 9.7 % at an annual average rate of 0.5%. Transport remains the sector with the fastest growing energy consumption (33.7% over the period) followed by services (29.0% over the period). Over the same period, household final energy consumption increased by about 13.0% while final consumption in industry fell by 13.0 %. Between 2007 and 2008, EU-27 final energy consumption increased by 0.3 % mainly due to significant increase in the services (5.2 %) and households (4.3%) sectors. In transport and industry final energy consumption actually decreased between 2007 and 2008 by 0.7% and 3.8% respectively. On average, one person in the EEA counties used 2.2 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet their energy needs in 2008.

Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2008

Note: Between 1990 and 2008, final energy consumption in transport increased by 33.7 % at an average annual rate of 1.7 %. In 2008, the share of transport in final energy consumption was 32.0%. Household final energy consumption increased by 4.3 % from 2007 to 2008, partially due to a very cold winter across Europe and the refilling of the fuel stock as well as poor energy efficiency improvements. In 2008, the share of household consumption in total final energy consumption was 25.3%. In 2008, the share of service sector in final energy consumption was 11.8%. In 2008, the share of industry in final energy consumption was 27.2%

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Note: Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

IEA. Final Energy Consumption non European countries: IEA http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP

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Key assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2008, final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 9.7 % (0.5 % annually), off-setting some of the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements (see ENER 001, ENER 005, ENER 006, ENER 007, ENER 008 and ENER 009).
  • Between 2007 and 2008 final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 0.3 % (see Table 1) mainly due to significant increase in the services and households, transport and industry sectors due to higher energy demand in these sectors. Final electricity consumption in households and services is driven to a large extent by greater ownership of electrical appliances and IT equipment and in industry by the declining cost of electricity relative to other fuels (although this trend has started to reverse in more recent years).Transport was the fastest-growing sector over the period and is now the largest consumer of final energy. The largest absolute increase was observed in Malta, Ireland and Belgium due to a combination of different factors including poor energy efficiency improvements and the continued increase in energy consumption by the transport sector.
  • Between 1990 and 2008 the non-EU EEA countries showed an increase of 49.6 % in their final energy consumption per capita. However in 2007-2008 it decreased by 0.3%. In the past year (2007-2008) Turkey showed a decrease of 1.6% (mainly in the industry sector) whereas Switzerland showed an increase of 3.7% (mainly in households).

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in the household and service sectors in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2008, household final energy consumption in EU-27 increased by 13.0 %, at an annual average rate of 0.7 % annually due to rising personal incomes that have permitted higher standards of living, an increase in comfort levels and broader ownership of domestic appliances. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand, and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations. However, it is the demand for electricity from appliances that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms in recent years (increase of more than 21 % per dwelling since 1990 – see ENER002). Household final energy consumption increased by 4.3 % from 2007 to 2008, partially due to a very cold winter across Europe and the refilling of the fuel stock as well as poor energy efficiency improvements. In 2008, the share of household consumption in total final energy consumption was 25.3% (see Figure 1). In contrast with the decrease of final energy consumption in households in the EU countries, final household consumption in non-EU EEA countries increased by 7.4 % from 2007 to 2008.

  • Final energy consumption in services grew by about 29.0 % at an annual average rate of 1.5 % between 1990 and 2008. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. Between 2007 and 2008, final consumption increased by 5.2 %, again partially due to increased use of air conditioning in southern countries and of IT and other electrical equipment everywhere In 2008, the share of service sector in final energy consumption was 11.8% (see Figure 1). Final energy consumption in services in non-EU EEA countries showed an increase of 9.3 % between 2007 and 2008, mainly due to strong increases in Turkey and Switzerland. Norway showed a small decrease.

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in industry in Europe?

Final energy consumption in the industry sectors

Note: The figure shows the development of the final energy consumption in the different industry sectors.

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_100a&lang=en

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Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2008, final energy consumption in industry fell by 13.0 %, at an annual average rate of 0.8 %. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, as well as the continuing transition to a more service-oriented economy. Compared to 2007, the final energy consumption in industry decreased by 3.8%. In 2008, the share of industry in final energy consumption was 27.2% (see also ENER002 and Figure 1).
  • Figure 2 shows the development of the final energy consumption in the different industry sectors. The graph shows reductions in energy consumption in the iron and steel industry as well as in the chemical industry and other non-classified industries. Their final consumption dropped between 1990 and 2008 by 26.6%, 22.7% and 12.3% respectively, but most of the reductions occurred in early 1990s. Less progress has been achieved in the non-metallic mineral products industry which shows only a slight decline in its energy consumption between 1990 and 2008 of 3.5%, possibly because this category includes cement and other building materials industries. The food, drink and tobacco industry is the only industrial sector that has increased its energy consumption by 2.8% over the period.

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in the transport sector in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Transport is the fastest-growing energy-consuming sector in the EU-27. Between 1990 and 2008, final energy consumption in transport increased by 33.7 % at an average annual rate of 1.7 %. In 2008, the share of transport in final energy consumption was 32.0% (see Figure 1). Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (both domestic and international) represented about 14.2 % of final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2008 and grew by about 83.3 % (3.6 % annually) between 1990 and 2008. This is in part due to the growth of low-cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population. For more details on trends in the transport sector see also the TERM report.

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

  • Council adopted on 6 April 2009 the climate-energy legislative package containing measures to fight climate change and promote renewable energy. This package is designed to achieve the EU's overall environmental target of a 20 % reduction in greenhouse gases and a 20 % share of renewable energy in the EU's total energy consumption by 2020.The climate action and renewable energy (CARE) package includes the following main policy documents

Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community

Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide

Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources

Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)

Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community

Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles

  • Second Strategic Energy Review; COM(2008) 781 final
    Strategic review on short, medium and long term targets on EU energy security.
  • Sustainable production and consumption action plan COM(2008) 397 final
    The strategy is meant to further sustainable consumption and production and promote its sustainable industrial policy.
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential COM(2006)545 final
    This Action Plan outlines a framework of policies and measures with a view to intensify the process of realising the 20% estimated savings potential in EU annual primary energy consumption by 2020.

Targets

 

Related policy documents

  • 443/2009
    Regulation (ec) no 443/2009 of the European parliament and of the Council setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles.
  • 2008/101/EC
    Directive 2008/101/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas Emission allowance trading within the community
  • 2008/c 82/01
    Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection (2008/c 82/01)
  • 2009/28/EC
    Directive 2009/28/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • 2009/29/ec
    Directive 2009/29/ec of the European parliament and of the Council amending directive 2003/87/ec so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the community.
  • 2009/31/EC
    Directive 2009/31/ec of the European parliament and of the Council on the geological storage of carbon dioxide.
  • COM(2006) 545
    Action Plan for Energy Efficiency
  • COM(2008) 397
    Sustainable production and consumption action plan
  • COM(2008) 781
    COM(2008) 781 final - Second Strategic Energy Review

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

Average annual rate of growth calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) -1]*100

The coding (used in the Eurostat database) and specific components of the indicator are:

  • Numerator: final energy consumption industry 101800 + final energy consumption transport 101900 + final energy consumption households 102010 + final energy consumption services 102035 + agriculture ao calculated as (final energy consumption agriculture 102030 + final energy consumption fisheries 102020 + final energy consumption other sectors 102040).
  • Only if needed for shares; Denominator: (total) final energy consumption 101700

The coding (used in the IEA database) and specific components of the indicator are:

  • Report: Energy Balances of Non-OECD countries and Energy Balances of OECD countries; Name: Energy Balances; Product: Total; Flow; Final Consumption - Flow; Memo: Feedstock use in petrochemical industry.

 

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling necessary

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

Any cross-country comparison of the distribution of final energy consumption between sectors will have to be accompanied by a relevant measure of the importance of the sector in the economy, as the sectoral shares also depends on the country's economic circumstances. Because the focus is on the reduction of final energy consumption and not on the sectoral redistribution of such consumption, the trends in the absolute values (in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent) should be preferred as a more meaningful indicator of progress. However, even if the same sectors in two countries are equally important to the economy, the gross (primary) consumption of energy needed before it reaches the final user might draw from energy sources that pollute the environment in different ways. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the final energy consumption of a sector should be analysed in that broader context.
The sectoral breakdown of final energy consumption includes industry, transport, households, services, agriculture, fisheries and other sectors. The projection data aggregates agriculture, fisheries and other sectors together with the services sector, and projections are based on such aggregation. To be consistent with these projections, the core set indicator uses the same aggregation. The inclusion of agriculture and fisheries together with the services sector is however questionable given their divergent trends. Separate assessments are therefore made where appropriate. It is worth noting that according to Eurostat final energy consumption in agriculture is not very reliable and it mainly means consumption from engines used for agricultural transportation. From next year a new definition will be used in the energy questionnaires to be more in line with the IPCC guidelines. 

Data sets uncertainty

Data have been traditionally compiled by Eurostat through the annual Joint Questionnaires (shared by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency) following a well established and harmonised methodology. Data are transmitted to Eurostat electronically by using a common set of tables. Data is then treated to find inconsistencies and input in the database. Estimations are not normally necessary since annual data are complete.

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
industry | energy consumption | csi | ghg retrospective | energy
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2008
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2010 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100