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You are here: Home / Data and maps / Indicators / Final energy consumption by sector / Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Sep 2010

Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Sep 2010

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Generic metadata

Topics:

Energy Energy (Primary topic)

Tags:
energy | energy consumption | csi | industry
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Dynamic
Temporal coverage:
1990-2007
Geographic coverage:
Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom
 
Contents
 

Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Between 1990 and 2007, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 8.4 % at an annual average rate of 0.5%. Transport remains the sector with the fastest growing energy consumption (34.4% over the period) followed by services (21.1% over the period). Over the same period, the household final energy consumption increased by about 8.0% while the final consumption in industry fell by 11.7 %. Between 2006 and 2007, the EU-27 final energy consumption decreased by 1.5 % mainly due to significant reductions in the households (6.6 %) and services (4.6%) sectors. In transport and industry final energy consumption actually increased between 2006 and 2007 by 1.6% and 1% respectively. On average, one person in the EU-27 used 2.3 tonnes of oil equivalent to meet the energy needs in 2007.

Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2007

Note: Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2007

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

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Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Note: Final energy consumption (million TOE) and per capita final consumption, EU-27

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/energy/data/database

IEA. Final Energy Consumption non European countries: IEA http://data.iea.org/IEASTORE/DEFAULT.ASP

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Key assessment

  •   Between 1990 and 2007, the final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 8.4 % (0.5 % annually), off-setting some of the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements (see ENER 01, ENER 05, ENER 06, ENER 07, ENER 08 and ENER 09).
  • Between 2006 and 2007 final energy consumption in the EU-27 decreased by 1.5 % (see Table 1) mainly due to significant reductions in the households and services sectors due to higher price elasticity of energy demand in these sectors. The largest absolute decrease was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the United Kingdom due to a combination of different factors including warmer weather, high energy prices and energy efficiency improvements.  
  • Between 1990 and 2007 the non-EU EEA countries showed an increase of 53.1 % in their final energy consumption. In 2006-2007 it was 3.4%. In the past year (2006-2007) Turkey showed an increase of 5.5% (mainly in transport) and Switzerland a decrease of 2.3% (mainly in households).

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in the household and service sectors in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, household final energy consumption in EU-27 increased by 8.0 %, at an annual average rate of 0.5 % annually due to rising personal incomes that have permitted higher standards of living, an increase in comfort levels and broader ownership of domestic appliances. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand, and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations. However, it is the demand for electricity from appliances that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms in recent years (increase of more than 21 % per dwelling since 1990 – see ENER02). Household final energy consumption decreased by 6.6 % from 2006 to 2007, partially due to high energy prices. In 2007, the share of household consumption in total final energy consumption was 24.6% (see Figure 1). In contrast with the decrease of the final energy consumption in households in the EU countries, the final household consumption in non-EU EEA countries increased by 0.8 % from 2006 to 2007.
  • ·         Final energy consumption in services grew by about 21.1 % at an annual average rate of 1.1 % between 1990 and 2007. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. Higher summer land surface temperatures in Europe can also help explain these trends (see core set indicator on global and European temperature [CSI 012]). Between 2006 and 2007 the final consumption decreased by 4.6 %, partially due to high energy prices. In 2007, the share of service sector in final energy consumption was 11.2% (see Figure 1).The non-EU EEA countries showed an increase of 5.8 % between 2006 and 2007, mainly due to strong increases in Turkey and Norway. Switzerland showed a small decrease.

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in industry in Europe?

Specific assessment

  • Between 1990 and 2007, final energy consumption in industry fell by 11.7 %, at an annual average rate of 0.7 %. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, as well as the continuing transition to a more service-oriented economy. Compared to 2006, the final energy consumption in industry increased by 1.0%. In 2007, the share of industry in final energy consumption was 27.9% (see also ENER 02 and Figure 1).
  • Figure 2 shows the development of the final energy consumption in the different industry sectors. The graph shows improvements in energy efficiency and energy conservation in the iron and steel industry as well as in the chemical industry and other non-classified industries. Their final consumption dropped between 1990 and 2007 by 23.8%, 23.5% and 17.5% respectively, but most of the reductions have occurred in early 1990s. Less progress has been achieved in the non-metallic mineral products industry which shows only a slight decline in its energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 of 1.7%, possibly because this category includes cement and other building materials industries. The food, drink and tobacco industry is the only industrial sector that has increased its energy consumption by 5.6% over the period.

Specific policy question: Is final energy consumption decreasing in the transport sector in Europe?

Final energy consumption in the industry sectors

Note: Final energy consumption in the industry sectors

Data source:

Eurostat. Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nrg_100a&lang=en

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Specific assessment

  • Transport was the fastest-growing energy-consuming sector in the EU-27. Between 1990 and 2007, the final energy consumption in transport increased by 34.4 % at an average annual rate of 1.8 %. In 2007, the share of transport in final energy consumption was 32.6% (see Figure 1). Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (both domestic and international) represented about 14.2 % of final energy consumption in the transport sector in 2007 and grew by about 83.3 % (3.6 % annually) between 1990 and 2007. This is in part due to the growth of low-cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population. For more details on trends in the transport sector see also TERM report.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello

Ownership

EEA Management Plan

2009 2.9.1 (note: EEA internal system)

Dates

Comments

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100