Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Apr 2008
Energy (Primary topic)
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
- CSI 027
- ENER 016
Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?
Final energy consumption in the EU-27 fell by 0.3 % from 2004 to 2005 but has increased by 9.3 % overall between 1990 and 2005. Transport has been the fastest-growing sector since 1990 and is now the largest consumer of final energy.
Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-27, 1990-2005
Note: TOE refers to tonnes of oil equivalents.
European Environment Agency and Eurostat
Final energy consumption 1990-2005 (million TOE) and per capita intensity in 2005
Note: TOE refers to tonnes of oil equivalents
European Environment Agency and Eurostat
Final energy consumption in the EU-27 increased by 9.3 % between 1990 and 2005, thus to a large extent counteracting reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements (see energy and environment indicators on EEA website http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/energy/indicators). Between 2004 and 2005, final energy consumption fell slightly by 0.3 %. The fastest growing sector was transport, followed by households and services. Final energy consumption in industry fell on average during 1990-2005 although the bulk of the fall occurred during the early 1990s economic recession.
Transport was the fastest-growing energy-consuming sector in the EU-27 between 1990 and 2005, with final energy consumption increasing by almost 30 %. Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have contributed significantly to the increased transport demand. Aviation (domestic and international combined) represented about 12-14% of energy consumption in the transport sector in 2005 and grew by about 75% between 1990 and 2005. This is in part due to the growth of low- cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population. By 2005, transport became the largest consumer of final energy in the EU.
Household final energy consumption increased by about 16 % during 1990-2005 as rising personal incomes have permitted higher standards of living, with increases in comfort levels and the ownership of domestic appliances. Real electricity prices in households fell over the same period. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand, and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations. However, it is the demand for electricity from appliances that has increased most rapidly in recent years (by 50% between 1990 and 2004 according to the IEA).
Final energy consumption in services grew by about 22 % between 1990 and 2005. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. Higher summer land surface temperatures in Europe can also partly explain these trends (see core set indicator 'global and European temperature').
Final energy consumption in industry fell by about 11 % between 1990 and 2005. This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, as well as the continuing transition to a more service-oriented economy.
Final Energy Consumption non European countries (IEA)
provided by International Energy Agency (IEA)
Energy statistics (Eurostat)
provided by Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
More information about this indicator
See this indicator specification for more details.
Contacts and ownership
EEA Contact InfoCinzia Pastorello
EEA Management Plan2010 (note: EEA internal system)
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe’s environment.
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