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Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Mar 2007

Indicator Assessment Created 20 Feb 2007 Published 23 Mar 2007 Last modified 07 Jul 2011, 02:45 PM
Topics: ,

Generic metadata


Energy Energy (Primary topic)

energy | csi
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Final energy consumption in the EU-25 grew by 1.1 % from 2003 to 2004 and has risen by
12.6 % overall between 1990 and 2004. Transport has been the fastest-growing sector since 1990 and is now the largest consumer of final energy.

Final energy consumption (1000 TOE) 1990-2004

Note: N/A

Data source:

European Environment Agency and Eurostat

Downloads and more info

Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-25, 1990-2004

Note: N/A

Data source:

European Environment Agency and Eurostat

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

Final energy consumption in the EU-25 increased by 12.6 % between 1990 and 2004, thus to an extent counteracting reductions in the environmental impact of energy production, which were achieved as a result of fuel mix changes and technological improvements. Between 2003 and 2004, final energy consumption grew by 1.1 %. The fastest growing sector was transport, followed by households and services. Final energy consumption in industry fell on average during the 1990-2004 period but increased by 1.4% per year in the last two years, 2002 and 2004.

Transport was the fastest-growing sector in the EU-25 between 1990 and 2004, with final energy consumption increasing by 28.6 %. Improvements in fuel efficiency were offset by increases in passenger and freight transport demand. Higher transport demand has resulted from increased ownership of private cars, particularly in the new EU Member States, growing settlement and urban sprawl with longer distances and changes in lifestyle. Rapid increases in passenger aviation have been apparent, in part due to the growth of low- cost airlines, which have made this mode of transport more accessible to a larger section of the population. By 2004, transport became the largest consumer of final energy in the EU.

Household final energy consumption increased by 17.5 % as rising personal incomes have permitted higher standards of living, with increases in comfort levels and the ownership of domestic appliances. Space heating and cooling is the most significant component of household energy demand , and can vary substantially from year to year depending on climatic variations. However, it is the demand for electricity from appliances that has increased most rapidly in percentage terms in recent years.

Services final energy consumption (including agriculture and other sectors) grew by 11.9 %. This was due to the continued increase in the demand for electrical appliances, in particular information and communication technology (such as computers and photocopiers), and also for other energy-intensive technologies such as air-conditioning. 

The industry sector showed a decrease in final energy consumption between 1990 and 2004 (-4.1 %). This was largely the result of a shift towards less energy-intensive manufacturing industries, as well as the continuing transition to a more service-oriented economy.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello


EEA Management Plan

2010 (note: EEA internal system)


Filed under: ,


European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100