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Final energy consumption by sector (CSI 027/ENER 016) - Assessment published Apr 2006

Indicator Assessment Created 06 Apr 2006 Published 12 Apr 2006 Last modified 07 Jul 2011, 02:45 PM
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Generic metadata


Energy Energy (Primary topic)

energy | csi
DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Descriptive indicator (Type A - What is happening to the environment and to humans?)
Indicator codes
  • CSI 027
  • ENER 016
Geographic coverage:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom

Key policy question: Is the final energy consumption decreasing in Europe?

Key messages

Final energy consumption in the EU-25 increased by almost 12 % over the period 1990 to 2003. Transport has been the fastest-growing sector since 1990 and is now the largest consumer of final energy.

Final energy consumption by sector in the EU-25

Note: (1990 - 2003)

Data source:


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Final energy consumption by country

Note: Data shown in 1000 tonnes of oil equivalent.

Data source:


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Key assessment

Final energy consumption in the EU-25 increased by 11.6 % between 1990 and 2003, thus partly counteracting the reductions in the environmental impact of energy production achieved as a result of fuel-mix changes and technological improvements. Between 2002 and 2003, final energy consumption increased significantly by 2.9 %. This was largely driven by the services and household sectors as a result of higher space heating and cooling requirements due to lower than average winter and higher summer temperatures during 2003.

The structure of final energy consumption has undergone significant changes in recent years. Transport was the fastest-growing sector in the EU-25 between 1990 and 2003, with final energy consumption increasing by 26.3%. Final energy consumption in services (including agriculture) and households grew by 11.8 % and 17.4 % respectively, while final energy consumption in the industry sector fell by 4.9 % over the same period. These developments meant that by 2003, transport was the largest consumer of final energy, followed by industry, households and services.

Changes in the structure of final energy consumption were stimulated by the rapid growth of a wide range of service sectors and a shift to less energy-intensive manufacturing industries. The development of the internal market has resulted in increased freight transport as companies exploit the competitive advantages of different regions. Rising personal incomes have permitted higher standards of living, with resultant increases in the ownership of private cars and domestic appliances. Higher comfort levels, reflected in increased demand for space heating and cooling, have also contributed to higher final energy consumption.

There are significant differences in the pattern of final energy consumption between the pre-2004 EU-15 Member States and the new Member States. The new Member States have seen falling final energy consumption mainly as a result of economic restructuring following the political changes of the early 1990s. However, with the economic recovery in these countries, final energy consumption since 2000 has increased again, which meant that the average annual decrease was -1.5 % over the period 1990-2003. In the EU-15, final energy consumption increased almost continuously between 1990 and 2003 at an average annual rate of 1.2 %.

Data sources

More information about this indicator

See this indicator specification for more details.

Contacts and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Cinzia Pastorello


EEA Management Plan

2010 (note: EEA internal system)


Filed under: ,


European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Phone: +45 3336 7100