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Energy intensity in the service sector (ENER 024) - Assessment published Apr 2012

Indicator Assessmentexpired Created 03 Apr 2012 Published 30 Apr 2012 Last modified 06 Nov 2013, 01:09 PM
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This content has been archived on 06 Nov 2013, reason: Other (Not currently being regularly updated)
 
Contents
 

Indicator definition

Services energy consumption covers all energy consumed in services for space heating, water heating, cooking and electricity. Energy consumption is corrected from climate to avoid yearly climatic corrections.

Unit consumption per employee is the ratio between the energy consumption (total or electricity) and the number of employees (salaries employed in full time)

The energy (or electricity) intensity is the ratio between the energy (electricity) consumption and the value added expressed in constant Euros (M€2000)

Units

Energy consumption: Mtoe

Unit consumption par employ: ton/employe

Energy intensity: koe/€2000


Key policy question: Is the energy intensity decreasing in the service sector?

Key messages

Over the period 2000-2009, the energy intensity (energy consumption at normal climate[1] per unit of value added) in the service sector decreased in the EU-27 by 1 %/year on average, showing a relative decoupling between energy consumption and activity (value added). Over the period 2005-2009 this intensity decreased by 1.8%/year, with a reverse trend in 2009 (+0.3%). In the same time energy consumption decreased by 0.3%/year (-1.9% in 2009) reaching 143 Mtoe in 2009 (117 Mtoe in 1990, 145 Mtoe in 2005). Electricity consumption per employee in EU-27 increased by 12%, at an annual growth rate of 1.3%, due to increased use of air conditioning in southern countries and of IT and other electrical equipment. This led to an increase in the electricity intensity of the service sector in EU-27 (electricity consumption per unit of value added) of 8% over the period 2000-2009 at an annual growth rate of 0.8% (same annual changes from 2005-2009). From 2005 to 2009 the electricity consumption per employee increased quite more rapidly (+1.1%/year and +3.2% in 2009). The electricity consumption per employee reached 4850 kWh/employee in 2009 (4645 kWh/employee in 2005, 4328 kWh/employee in 1990).


[1] Energy intensity at normal climate (i.e. corrected for climatic variations)



Electricity intensity and electricity consumption per employee in services

Note: Unit consumption per employee is the ratio between the energy consumption (total or electricity) and the number of employees (salaries employed in full time). The energy (or electricity) intensity is the ratio between the energy (electricity) consumption and the value added expressed in constant Euros (M€2000)

Data source:

Eurostat for value added; Odyssee for employment and energy consumption at normal climate

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Electricity intensity in the service sector

Note: Unit consumption per employee is the ratio between the energy consumption (total or electricity) and the number of employees (salaries employed in full time). The energy (or electricity) intensity is the ratio between the energy (electricity) consumption and the value added expressed in constant Euros (M€2000)

Data source:

ODYSSEE database. Electricity intensity of tertiary (MWh/M€2005ppp). The Odyssee database is available at  http://www.odyssee-indicators.org/   The access is restricted to project partners or subscribers

 

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Energy consumption per employee and energy intensity in services

Note: Unit consumption per employee is the ratio between the energy consumption (total or electricity) and the number of employees (salaries employed in full time). The energy (or electricity) intensity is the ratio between the energy (electricity) consumption and the value added expressed in constant Euros (M€2000)

Data source:

Eurostat for value added; Odyssee for employment and energy consumption at normal climate

Downloads and more info

Key assessment

  • Over the period 2000-2009, the final energy intensity of the service sector has decreased in the EU-27, at an annual average rate of 1%. Such a trend shows a relative decoupling between energy consumption and economic growth: the value added of the service sector increased by 1.9%/year while its energy consumption only increased by 0.9%/year between 2000 and 2009. In the recent years, the intensity decreased more rapidly by 1.8%/year (average over 2005-2009). In the same time energy consumption decreased by 0.3%/year reaching 143 Mtoe in 2009 (117 Mtoe in 1990, 145 Mtoe in 2005). In 2009, however, the past trends have been reversed and the energy intensity increased by 0.3%, as the decrease of the energy consumption (-1.9%) did not follow by the strong decrease of the value added (- 2.2%) (Figure 1).

 

  • From 2005 to 2009 the electricity consumption increased faster than the value added at EU level (2.3%/year versus 1.5%/year); as a result, the electricity intensity (i.e. the electricity consumption per unit of value added), increased by 0.8%/year on average. In 2009 the electricity intensity increased by 4.4%, as the electricity consumption continued to increase (by 2.1%) despite the strong decrease of the value added (- 2.2%): in a period of recession, such as in 2009, the electricity consumption in the service does not follow the reduction in activity as most of the electricity consumption is independent on the level of activity, especially in offices (e.g. lighting, office equipment).

 

  • In about 40% of the countries (11 out of 30 countries[1]), the electricity intensity is following a different trend as observed at EU level: the electricity consumption is increasing slower than the activity since 2005 which means that there is a relative decoupling between electricity consumption and economic activity. This lower growth of electricity use may be due to energy efficiency improvements, structural changes or saturation in electricity uses in the sector but it is difficult to assess the relative importance of these different factors due to data limitations in this sector. In the other countries such as Southern countries, the electricity intensity tends to increase rapidly due to a diffusion of air conditioning. (Figure 3).


[1] 27 EU countries plus Norway and Croatia

Specific policy question: What are the trends concerning the energy consumption per employee and per capita in the service sector?

Specific assessment

  • Energy consumption in the services sector is strongly linked to the number of employees, especially in office buildings as energy is mainly consumed for lighting, office and IT equipment, and air conditioning. Therefore it is also relevant to look at the relation between the amount of energy used and the number of employees.

 

  •  Over the period 2005–2009, the energy consumption per employee decreased by around 1.5% on average ( 0.9% in 2009). (Figure 1).

 

  • The electricity consumption per employee increased by around 1.1%/year from 2005 to 2009, due to increased use of air conditioning in southern countries and IT and other electric equipment. In 2009, the unit consumption per employee increased by 3.2%, as the electricity consumption did not follow the reduction in the number of employees (-1%) and continue to increase (by 2.1%).

 

  • The different trends in electricity intensity in the service sector, one measured per employee and one per value added, reflects the fact that the variation of the value added is always more rapid than the variation in the number of employees: this is due to labor productivity gains and to the relative inelasticity of employment to the value added in a period of recession, such as in 2009. Value added increased by almost 1.9% from 2000 to 2009 and employment by 1.4 %/year. The value added created per employee (labor productivity) thus increased by 0.5 %/year on average (Figure 2). Over the period 2005-2009 labor productivity increased only by 0.3%/year.

Data sources

Policy context and targets

Context description

The indicator tracks progress made in reducing the energy consumption per unit of activity in the service sector in EU-27. Specific policies are not available for this sector.

 

Targets

No targets have been specified

Related policy documents

No related policy documents have been specified

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

  • Methodology of calculation : energy consumption at normal climate

    E =  En x (1-K)+ En x K x (DD/DDn)
      or  En = E x 1/ (1-K x (1-DD/DDn))
    with  K=  r x a   with  r = heating share for normal year  and   a = share of heating dependant on degree days (e.g. 90%)

Geographical coverage:
The Eurostat database covers all 27 EU member states plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, Croatia and Turkey. Odyssee database covers EU-27 plus Norway and Croatia.

Temporal coverage:
2000-2009 for energy intensities and unit energy consumption (due to non available or reliable data for new EU countries)

Methodology and frequency of data collection:
Data collected annually in the framework of the ODYSSEE MURE project

Methodology of data manipulation:

  • Change in tertiary final energy consumption per person: (final energy consumption per country2007 /population per country2007) / (final energy consumption per country1990 /population per country1990) – 1
  • Energy (electricity) intensity : energy (electricity) consumption / value added in euro, at constant prices of 2000   
  • Energy (electricity) unit consumption: energy (electricity) consumption / number of employees

    Methodology for gap filling

    • Electricity consumption : source ODYSSEE data base sum of 27 countries as there is a discontinuity in Eurostat in 2006; for countries for which there are data gaps in ODYSSEE, the missing values are interpolated using Eurostat data; the growth rate of Eurostat is applied to the values provided by the country to make the interpolation.

    Methodology references

    No methodology references available.

    Uncertainties

    Methodology uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    Data sets uncertainty

    Not all data is available for all countries. Availability for data on years earlier than 2007, is higher.
    Odyssee data is recently updated (August 2009)

    The reliability of total services energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. Division of the energy consumption among activities (heating / cooking / cooling  etc.) is less accurate, because it is based on assumptions.

     

    Rationale uncertainty

    No uncertainty has been specified

    More information about this indicator

    See this indicator specification for more details.

    Generic metadata

    Topics:

    Energy Energy (Primary topic)

    Tags:
    electricity | energy | consumption | energy intensity
    DPSIR: State
    Typology: Efficiency indicator (Type C - Are we improving?)
    Indicator codes
    • ENER 024
    Dynamic
    Temporal coverage:
    2000-2009
    Geographic coverage:
    Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

    Contacts and ownership

    EEA Contact Info

    Anca-Diana Barbu

    Ownership

    EEA Management Plan

    2011 2.8.1 (note: EEA internal system)

    Dates

    Comments

    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    Kongens Nytorv 6
    1050 Copenhagen K
    Denmark
    Phone: +45 3336 7100