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Production, sales and emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases)

Indicator Specification Created 23 Jan 2013 Published 28 Feb 2013 Last modified 18 May 2015, 04:45 PM
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Contents
 

Justification for indicator selection

Emissions of F-gases contribute to global warming and are included in the basket of greenhouses addressed in the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol. F-gases presently account for around 2% of the EU-28 overall greenhouse gas emissions, with a rising trend. At the European level, policy measures have been implemented since 2006 to reduce F-gas emissions, by targeting:

  • the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing F-gases
  • limiting the amounts of HFCs to be placed on the EU market
  • increased reclamation of used F-gases 
  • by avoiding the use of certain high-GWP F-gases in some applications in which more environmentally superior alternatives are available

As future emissions of F-gases are strongly determined by today’s consumption, this indicator also looks at the consumption metric.

Scientific references:

Indicator definition

The indicator tracks trends since 1990 in anthropogenic emissions of the following fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), differentiated by HFCs, PFCs and SF6.

HFCs

PFCs

SF6

HFC-23

CF4

 

HFC-32

C2F6

 

HFC-41

C3F8

 

HFC-43-10mee

C4F10

 

HFC-125

c-C4F8

 

HFC-134

C5F12

 

HFC-134a

C6F14

 

HFC-152a

 

 

HFC-143

 

 

HFC-143a

 

 

HFC-227ea

 

 

HFC-236fa

 

 

HFC-245ca

 

 

The indicator also tracks trends since 2007 in the aggregated production, bulk imports, bulk exports and consumption of F-gases, differentiated, where available by HFCs, PFCs and SF6; additional F-gases compared to the emissions list are marked in bold.

HFCs

PFCs

SF6

HFC-23

CF4

 

HFC-32

C2F6

 

HFC-41

C3F8

 

HFC-43-10mee

C4F10

 

HFC-125

c-C4F8

 

HFC-134

C5F12

 

HFC-134a

C6F14

 

HFC-152a

 

 

HFC-143

 

 

HFC-143a

 

 

HFC-227ea

 

 

HFC-236cb

 

 

HFC-236ea

 

 

HFC-236fa

 

 

HFC-245ca

 

 

HFC-245fa

 

 

HFC-365mfc

 

 

‘Net supply’ is a parameter derived from company reporting under the F-Gas Regulation that provides information on the actual use of (bulk) F-gases by EU industries. Net supply is calculated by firstly adding reported amounts for:

  • production
  • imports (bulk imports only, imports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation)
  • stocks held on 1 January of the reporting year
  • ‘other amounts collected for reclamation or destruction from within the EU’,

and then subtracting the following reported amounts:

  • exports (bulk exports only, exports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation)
  • destruction (on-site by reporting companies and off-site within the EU on reporting companies’ behalf)
  • amounts used as feedstock by reporting companies
  • stocks held on 31 December of the reporting year.

 

Furthermore, the shares of intended applications of F-gas net supply in the latest available reporting year are given, differentiating between

  • refrigeration and air-conditioning
  • fire protection
  • aerosols
  • foams
  • electrical equipment
  • other, unknown or no information reported.

Units

Emissions: Mt CO2-eq (GWP SAR): Million tonnes of CO2 equivalents calculated with the global warming potentials (GWPs) as given in the IPCC 2nd Assessment Report.

Production, imports, exports & consumption: Mt CO2-eq (GWP AR4): Million tonnes of CO2 equivalents calculated with the global warming potentials (GWPs) as given in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report.

Intended applications: Percentages based on physical tonnage and GWP AR4 weighted tonnage, respectively.

Policy context and targets

Context description

Fluorinated gases contribute to global warming and F-gases, which are not covered by the Montreal Protocol, are included under the UNFCCC. Emission reporting according to the 1996 IPCC guidelines and the 2000 IPCC 'Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories' uses the GWPs of the 2nd IPCC Assessment report (SAR):

HFCs

PFCs

SF6

HFC-23

CF4

 

HFC-32

C2F6

 

HFC-41

C3F8

 

HFC-43-10mee

C4F10

 

HFC-125

c-C4F8

 

HFC-134

C5F12

 

HFC-134a

C6F14

 

HFC-152a

 

 

HFC-143

 

 

HFC-143a

 

 

HFC-227ea

 

 

HFC-236fa

 

 

HFC-245ca

 

 

 The 'old' EU F-Gas Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 extends this list of covered F-gases by HFC-236cb, HFC-236ea, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc. As of 2015, coverage of gases will be extended both for UNFCCC inventory reporting and for the scope of the 'new' EU F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 repealing Regulation 642/2006. This will be taken up in the autumn 2015 update of this indicator.

On European level two key legislative instruments focus on fluorinated gases:

  • Regulation No 842/2006 on certain fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gas Regulation) and
  • Directive 2006/40/EC relating to emissions from air-conditioning systems in motor vehicles (MAC Directive)

The 'old' F-Gas Regulation follows two tracks of action:

  • Improving the 'leak-tightness' of equipment containing F-gases. Measures comprise: labelling of equipment containing F-gases, training and certification of personnel and companies handling this type of gases, containment of F-gases within equipment, and proper recovery of F-gases from equipment that is no longer used.
  • Avoiding the use of F-gases in some applications in which more environmentally superior alternatives are already cost-effective. Measures include restrictions on the use and marketing of F-gases in these cases.

 The 'old' EU F-Gas Regulation (Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 extends the list of covered F-gases (in comparison to the IPCC reporting requirement) by HFC-236cb, HFC-236ea, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc.

The 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 maintains many measures of the 'old' F-Gas Regulation 842/2006, in particular related to leak prevention, recovery, certification of technicians and selected restrictions on the use and marketing of F-gases. Large reductions in F-gas use and emissions are expected from a new measure, which will progressively cap allowed sales of HFCs on the EU market ('phase-down').Reductions are also expected from bans of F-gases with a high Global Warming Potential (GWP).

The MAC Directive requires gradual phase-out of F-gases with GWP >150 in new systems in the period 2011-2017 in EU.

Targets

In the framework of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, no separate target for fluorinated greenhouse gases has been specified.

In the EU context, the overall objective of the 'old' F-Gas Regulation was, together with the MAC Directive, to help fulfill the commitments of the European Union and its Member States under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, for the period 2008 to 2012. The legislation was expected to break the growing trend in the EU and maintain F-gas emissions in EU-15 at 75 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents in 2010[1]. In fact, the 2010 EU-15 F-gas emissions accounted for 78 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents (according to the 2014 reporting). The 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 aims to reduce emissions by two-thirds of the 2010 level by 2030.

 [1] COM(2003) 492 final of 11.8.2003. This Commission proposal was the basis of both the Regulation and the MAC Directive.

Related policy documents

Key policy question

What progress is being made in reducing emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases?

Specific policy question

In which sectors are fluorinated greenhouse gases used?

Methodology

Methodology for indicator calculation

The indicator presents GWP-weighted emissions of F-gases as officially reported by the EU-28 Member States.

Furthermore, the indicator presents aggregated production, imports, exports and net supply in units of million tonnes of CO2-equivalents, which is the physical amount of F-gases produced, imported, exported or consumed, multiplied by their respective global warming potential. Data are based on company reporting under Article 6 of the 'old' F-gas Regulation 642/2006.

‘Net supply’ is a parameter derived from company reporting under the 'old' F-Gas Regulation 642/2006 that provides information on the actual use of (bulk) F-gases by EU industries. Net supply is calculated by firstly adding reported amounts for:

  • production
  • imports (bulk imports only, imports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation)
  • stocks held on 1 January of the reporting year
  • ‘other amounts collected for reclamation or destruction from within the EU’,

and then subtracting the following reported amounts:

  • exports (bulk exports only, exports contained in products or equipment are not considered in the reporting under the F-Gas Regulation)
  • destruction (on-site by reporting companies and off-site within the EU on reporting companies’ behalf)
  • amounts used as feedstock by reporting companies
  • stocks held on 31 December of the reporting year.


The 'old' EU F-Gas Regulation 842/2006 extends the list of covered F-gases (in comparison to the IPCC reporting requirement) by HFC-236cb, HFC-236ea, HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc.

The reporting requirements under the 'new' F-Gas Regulation 517/2014 cover a largely extended list of gases. However, this does not come into effect before companies report on their 2014 activities, due 31st March 2015. Furthermore, reporting requirements under the IPCC do also change in 2015. In consequence, the new data situation as of 2015 will be reflected in the 2015 update of this indicator.

All information provided to the Commission and the EEA on transactions of F-gases in the EU is treated as strictly confidential. The Commission and the EEA have established procedures to ensure that all of the data relating to individual companies will be kept strictly confidential. No company-specific information is disclosed to the public; all company data are aggregated before publication. These procedures limit the release of data that might significantly rely on reports from less than three company groups. To this end, company groups that contribute to less than 5 % do not count toward the '3-company-rule'. Concerns regarding confidentiality can be addressed to the European Commission or to the entity designated by the European Commission.

Methodology for gap filling

No gap filling takes place.

Methodology references

No methodology references available.

Data specifications

EEA data references

Data sources in latest figures

Uncertainties

Methodology uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Data sets uncertainty

As a part of the calculation process for 'net supply', quantities reported for on-site destruction by the reporting company and quantities reported for destruction off-site on behalf of the reporting company are taken into account (with a negative arithmetic sign) as well as 'other amounts collected for reclamation or destruction from within the EU' (with a positive arithmetic sign). Summing up both destruction-related quantities might possibly result in both double counting and omissions: Double-counting is not impossible, as reporting companies might report as 'own destruction' the same quantity which was reported as 'destroyed off-site' by another company. Omissions are very probable as specialised destruction facilities (which do not report themselves) might have destroyed more used F-gases than those quantities received by reporting companies. Furthermore, an aggregate analysis of 'other amounts collected for reclamation or destruction from within the EU' performed in the 2013 EEA report on F-gases (EEA Technical report No 15/2013) reporting reveals that these amounts do not match the amounts reported for actual destruction, reclamation or exports to theses purposes. However, the absolute relevance of the reported destruction quantities was limited to approximately 1 % of total net supply in past years.

Rationale uncertainty

No uncertainty has been specified

Further work

Short term work

Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.

Long term work

Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.

General metadata

Responsibility and ownership

EEA Contact Info

Peder Gabrielsen

Ownership

European Environment Agency (EEA)

Identification

Indicator code
CLIM 048
Specification
Version id: 1
Primary theme: Climate change Climate change

Permalinks

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Frequency of updates

Updates are scheduled once per year

Classification

DPSIR: Driving force
Typology: Policy-effectiveness indicator (Type D)

Related content

Data used

Latest figures and vizualizations

Relevant policy documents

Geographic coverage

European Environment Agency (EEA)
Kongens Nytorv 6
1050 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Phone: +45 3336 7100