Aquaculture: effluent water quality from finfish farms
Published (reviewed and quality assured)
Justification for indicator selection
MAIN ADVANTAGES OF THE INDICATOR
- Data availability on production levels and average values for conversion factors.
- Established methodology.
- Policy relevance (CFP).
- No rationale references available
Annual trend in release of nutrients into the marine environment as a result of aquaculture practices.
No units have been specified
Policy context and targets
The importance of aquaculture as a source of fish protein in the EU is increasing. In 2004 aquaculture contributed almost 19 % to the total fisheries production of EU-25 an increase of nearly 2 % over the situation in 2000. However, this was not due to an increase in aquaculture production, which has remained relatively stable since 2000, but due primarily to a decrease of nearly 10 % in the total fisheries production. One of the goals of the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is to take measures to mitigate the impact of aquaculture on the environment.
In general, effluent water quality is determined by the concentration of nutrients in the discharge water and hence by the amount of nutrients produced that will be discharged, and the flow rate of the effluent. In the case of aquaculture the production of nutrients that will be discharged in the marine environment is determined.
Relation of the indicator to the focal area
Aquaculture typically takes place in water of high quality. The principal measurable environmental pressures of aquaculture production are increased local organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorous which in turn may lead to locally increased Biological Oxygen Demand, eutrophication, and possibly algal blooms. In the absence of major improvements in industry practices, increased production is likely to be associated with increases in all these pressures and thus unsustainability (NB: some local systems may however have a higher carrying capacity than others).
Any localised degradation will lead to production problems on farms. Pressure from nutrients from intensive cultivation in marine and brackish water is becoming significant in the context of total nutrient loadings to the coastal environment. Although the environmental pressure from aquaculture will continue to grow as European aquaculture production expands, the rate of increase may be mitigated substantially by adoption of more sustainable management practices and production techniques.
No targets have been specified
Related policy documents
No related policy documents have been specified
Key policy question
What are the main trends in aquaculture across Europe?
Methodology for indicator calculation
The actual nitrogen and phosphorus discharge can be estimated by modelling the nutrient production by aquaculture operations by applying the appropriate conversion factors.
The proportion of aquaculture production which results in nutrient waste can be based upon the mid-range of values of 55g N released per kg production (5.5 %) and 7.5g P/production Kg (0.75 %) for finfish marine and brackish water production in the Atlantic and (66g N /production Kg (6.6 %) and 3g P /production Kg (0.3 %) in the Mediterranean.
Otherwise a formula can be used for Nitrogen
- Discharged nitrogen = Feed nitrogen -- ish nitrogen
- where Fish nitrogen = Total fish production * Protein level in fish/6.25
- Feed nitrogen = Protein level /6.25 * Amount of feed
- Amount of feed = Total fish production * Feed conversion rate
The total EU production is determined using FAO statistics.
Feed conversion rate and Protein level in the feed can be collected among fish feed manufactures as they have not been systematically documented.
Protein level in the fish can be obtained from scientific the literature.
Further methodological detail can be found in the specification sheet for CSI 033 at
Methodology for gap filling
No methodology for gap filling has been specified. Probably this info has been added together with indicator calculation.
- Environmental impact of nutrients from Nordic fish farming Enell, M., 1995. 'Environmental impact of nutrients from Nordic fish farming'. Water Science and Technology 31(10):61-71.
- INDENT, 2006. Indicators of Environmental integration INDENT, 2006. Indicators of Environmental integration. Final report. Tender Reference No FISH/2004/12
- Resource Kit for Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns UNEP, 2004. Resource Kit for Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns. Available at: http://www.unep.org/PDF/sc/SC_resourcekit.pdf. [Accessed 23 June 2009]
EEA data references
- No datasets have been specified here.
External data references
Data sources in latest figures
No uncertainty has been specified
Data sets uncertainty
No uncertainty has been specified
MAIN DISADVANTAGES OF THE INDICATOR
Calculations are based on conversion factors and statistics on:
Total fish production, Feed conversion rate, Protein level in the feed, and Protein level in the fish. All but the first are species specific and average values have to be derived.
The impact of nutrient release is site specific, depending on widely varying production practises, and local conditions coupled with the assimilative capacity of different habitats.
Short term work
Work specified here requires to be completed within 1 year from now.
Long term work
Work specified here will require more than 1 year (from now) to be completed.
Work descriptionSUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Feed conversion rates, protein level in the feed, and Protein level in the fish should become available at least for the main species in aquaculture and key culture systems. Critical levels should be set where possible (but effects of nutrients are very site specific). In the future the indicators could encompass the rest of aquaculture related pressures into the environment such as escapes and increases in pathogen density, chemotherapeutants and antibiotics, increased demand for feed inputs, interactions with the seafloor (sediment quality and effect on benthos), non‑native species. Extension to other aquaculture other than finfish.
No resource needs have been specified
Deadline2099/01/01 00:00:00 GMT+1
Responsibility and ownership
EEA Contact InfoKatarzyna Biala