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Specific CO 2 emissions from the road transport sector have decreased since 2000, mainly because of past improvements in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. An EU regulation sets emission performance standards for new passenger cars, which is expected to further reduce CO 2 emissions as a result of emission targets of 130 g/km and 95 g/km targets that it sets for 2015 and 2021, respectively. A separate regulation sets emission standards for light commercial vehicles (vans), with a 2017 target of 175 g CO 2 /km and 147 g CO 2 /km by 2020.
Although decreasing, the CO 2 emissions from the air transport sector are still considerably higher than those from road transport, while rail remains the most energy efficient mode of passenger transport.
The specific energy efficiency of light and heavy duty trucks has improved slightly since 2000, but road transport still consumes significantly more energy per tonne-kilometre (tkm) than rail or ship freight transport. CO 2 emissions from light commercial vehicles are also expected to decrease in view of the emission targets of 175 g/km and 147 g/km set for 2015 and 2020, respectively.
Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least three stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid box. A black dot indicates that the long-term trend is significant at the 5% level. The classes for annual and summer precipitation differ (by factor 4) because annual precipitation covers 12 months whereas summer precipitation covers 3 months only.
Hail events are among the most costly weather-related extreme events in several European regions, causing substantial damage to crops, vehicles, buildings and other infrastructure.
The number of hail events is highest in mountainous areas and pre-Alpine regions. Since 1951, increasing hail trends have been noted in southern France and Austria, and decreasing (but not statistically significant) trends have been noted in parts of eastern Europe.
Future projections of hail events are subject to large uncertainties, because small-scale hail events cannot be directly represented in global and regional climate models. However, model-based studies for central Europe show some agreement that hailstorm frequency will increase in this region.
Based on the logistic hail model (Mohr, Kunz, and Geyer, 2015) and reanalysis data from NCEP-NCAR (Kalnay, et al., 1996). Trends with significance below the 5% level are cross-hatched. Note that significant trends are only found for values below -5 PHI over the period.
Storm location, frequency and intensity have shown considerable decadal variability across Europe over the past century, such that no significant long-term trends are apparent.
Recent studies on changes in winter storm tracks generally project an extension eastwards of the North Atlantic storm track towards central Europe and the British Isles.
Climate change simulations show diverging projections on changes in the number of winter storms across Europe. However, most studies agree that the risk of severe winter storms, and possibly of severe autumn storms, will increase for the North Atlantic and northern, north-western and central Europe over the 21st century.
Grid boxes outlined in solid black contain at least three stations and so are likely to be more representative of the grid box. Significant (at the 5% level) long-term trend is shown by a black dot.
The intensity of heavy precipitation events in summer and winter have increased in northern and north-eastern Europe since the 1960s. Different indices show diverging trends for south-western and southern Europe.
Heavy precipitation events are likely to become more frequent in most parts of Europe. The projected changes are strongest in Scandinavia and eastern Europe in winter.
Harmonised in situ data on soil moisture are not available across the EU. Modelled soil moisture content has significantly decreased in the Mediterranean region and increased in parts of northern Europe since the 1950s, as a result of past warming and precipitation changes.
Significant decreases in summer soil moisture content in the Mediterranean region and increases in north-eastern Europe are projected for the coming decades.
Soil moisture content was modelled using a soil moisture balance model in the upper soil horizons (up to 1 m).
The left panel shows a risk model map during summer 2006 and the number of cases in countries reporting infections. The right panel shows a projection of the risk of infection in 2050.
It is not possible to assess whether past climate change has already affected water- and food-borne diseases in Europe, but the sensitivity of pathogens to climate factors suggest that climate change could be having effects on these diseases.
The number of vibriosis infections, which can be life-threatening, has increased substantially in Baltic Sea states since 1980. This increase has been linked to observed increases in sea surface temperature, which has improved environmental conditions for Vibrio species blooms in marine waters. The unprecedented number of vibriosis infections in 2014 has been attributed to the unprecedented 2014 heat wave in the Baltic region.
Increased temperatures could increase the risk of salmonellosis.
The risk of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis could increase in those regions where precipitation or extreme flooding is projected to increase.
Climate change can have an impact on food safety hazards throughout the food chain.
This map shows the estimated multiplication factor, by which the frequency of flooding events of a given height changes between 2010 and 2100 due to projected regional sea relative level rise under the RCP4.5 scenario. Values larger than 1 indicate an increase in flooding frequency
For references, please go to http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/find/global or scan the QR code.
PDF generated on 25 Mar 2017, 02:29 PM
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