Urban wastewater treatment
Number of countries in brackets. Northern: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland; Western: Austria, Ireland, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark; Southern: Greece, Spain. Primary wastewater treatment removes part of the suspended solids, but no ammonium; secondary (biological) treatment uses aerobic or anaerobic micro-organisms, retains 20 % to 30 % of the nutrients and removes around 75 % ammonium; tertiary treatment includes phosphorus retention and in some cases nitrogen removal.
For references, please go to www.eea.europa.eu/soer or scan the QR code.
This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europe's environment.
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